Effect of Temperature, Phase Change, and Chemical Additives on Wettability Alteration During Steam Applications in Sands and Carbonates
- Randy Agra Pratama (University of Alberta) | Tayfun Babadagli (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 292 - 310
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Grosmont carbonates and oil sands, steam injection, phase change, chemical additives and nano materials, wettability alteration
- 22 in the last 30 days
- 95 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
When considering the wettability state during steam applications, we find that most issues remain unanswered. Removal of polar groups from the rock surface with increasing temperature improves water-wettability; however, other factors, including phase change, play a reverse role. In other words, hot water or steam shows different wettability characteristics, eventually affecting the recovery. Alternatively, wettability can be altered using steam additives. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not yet clear. The objective of this work was to quantitatively evaluate the steam-induced wettability alteration in different rock systems and analyze the mechanism of wettability change caused by the phase change of water and by chemical additives.
Heavy oil from a field in Alberta (27,780 cp at 25°C) was used in contact-angle measurements conducted on quartz, mica, calcite plates, and rock pieces obtained from a bitumen-containing carbonate reservoir (Grosmont). All measurements were conducted at a temperature ranging up to 200°C using a high-temperature/high-pressure interfacial tension (IFT) device. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of this process, different factors, including the phase of water, pressure, rock type, and contact sequence, were considered and studied separately.
To study the effect of pressure on wettability, we started by maintaining the water in liquid phase and measuring the contact angles between the oil and water at different pressures. Next, the contact angle was measured in pure steam by keeping the pressure lower than saturation pressure. The influence of contact sequence was investigated by reversing the sequence of generating steam and introducing oil during measurement; these measurements were repeated on different substrates. Different temperature-resistant chemical additives (alkalis, surfactants, ionic liquid) were added to the steam during contact-angle measurement to test the wettability alteration characteristics at different temperatures and pressure conditions (steam or hot-water phase). In addition to these wettability-state observations, surface-tension experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of additives in reducing surface tension for the oil/steam system. The results showed that the wettability of the tested substrates is not sensitive to pressure as long as the phase has not been changed. The system, however, was observed to be more oil-wet in steam than in water at the same temperature in the calcite test. The wettability state could be altered by using chemical additives in certain ranges of concentration; moreover, the optimal chemical-additive concentration was also observed from both contact-angle and surface-tension measurements.
Analysis of the degree of wettability alteration induced by steam (or hot water) and temperature was helpful to further understand the interfacial properties of the steam/bitumen/rock system, and proved useful in the recovery-performance estimation of the steam-injection process in carbonate and sand reservoirs, specifically in chemically enhanced heavy-oil recovery.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Abdallah, W., Buckley, J. S., Carnegie, A. et al. 2007. Fundamentals of Wettability. Oilfield Rev 44–61. https://www.slb.com/-/media/files/oilfieldreview/p44-61-english.
Al-Hadhrami, H. S. and Blunt, M. J. 2001. Thermally Induced Wettability Alteration to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (3): 179–186. SPE-71866-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/71866-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1986. Wettability Literature Survey—Part 1: Rock/Oil/Brine Interactions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J Pet Technol 38 (10): 1125–1144. SPE-13932-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
Bennion, D. B., Thomas, F. B., and Sheppard, D. A. 1992. Formation Damage Due to Mineral Alteration and Wettability Changes During Hot Water and Steam Injection in Clay-Bearing Sandstone Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–27 February. SPE-23783-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/23783-MS.
Blevins, T. R. 1990. Steamflooding in the U.S.: A Status Report. J Pet Technol 42 (5): 548–554. SPE-20401-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20401-PA.
Bruns, F. and Babadagli, T. 2017. Recovery Improvement of Gravity Driven Steam Applications Using New Generation Chemical Additives. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 23–27 April. SPE 185714-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/185714-MS.
Bruns, F. and Babadagli, T. 2018. Recovery Improvement by Chemical Additives to Steam Injection: Identifying Underlying Mechanisms Through Core and Visual Experiments. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Garden Grove, California, 22–27 April. SPE-190083-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190083-MS.
Bruns, F. and Babadagli, T. In press. Recovery Improvement of Gravity Driven Steam Applications Using New Generation Chemical Additives. SPE Res Eval & Eng (submitted 5 February 2019).
Bruns, F. and Babadagli, T. In press. Recovery Improvement by Chemical Additives to Steam Injection: Identifying Underlying Mechanisms Through Visual Experiments. SPE J. (submitted 18 July 2019).
Cao, N., Mohammed, M. A., and Babadagli, T. 2017. Wettability Alteration of Heavy-Oil-Bitumen-Containing Carbonates by Use of Solvents, High-pH Solutions, and Nano/Ionic Liquids. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (2): 363–371. SPE-183646-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/183646-PA.
Cao, Y. and Mu, T. 2014. A Comprehensive Investigation on the Thermal Stability of 66 Ionic Liquids by Thermogravimetric Analysis. Ind Eng Chem Res 53 (20): 8651–8664. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie5009597.
Enerdata. 2017. Global Energy Statistical Yearbook, https://yearbook.enerdata.net/total-energy/world-consumption-statistics.html.
Færgestad, I. M. 2016. The Defining Series: Heavy Oil. Oilfield Rev (1–2). https://www.slb.com/resource-library/oilfield-review/defining-series/definingheavy-oil.
Haagh, M. E. J., Siretanu, I., Duits, M. H. G. et al. 2017. Salinity-Dependent Contact Angle Alteration in Oil/Brine/Silicate Systems: The Critical Role of Divalent Cations. Langmuir 33 (14): 3349–3357. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b04470.
Haas, T. W., Fadaei, H., Guerrero, U., et al. 2013. Steam-on-a-Chip for Oil Recovery: The Role of Alkaline Additives in Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage. Lab Chip 13 (19): 3832–3839. https://doi.org/10.1039/c3lc50612f.
Hanamertani, A., Pilus, R., and Irawan, S. 2015. A Review on the Application of Ionic Liquids for Enhanced Oil Recovery. In ICIPEG 2016, eds. M. Awang, B. Negash, N. Md. Akhir, L. Lubis, and A. Md. Rafek, 133–147. Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-3650-7_11.
Jones, J., McWilliams, M., and Sturm, D. 1995. Kern River Revisited: Life After Steam Flood. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 8–10 March. SPE-29664-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/29664-MS.
Lee, S. S., Heberling, F., Sturchio, N. C. et al. 2016. Surface Charge of the Calcite (104) Terrace Measured by Rb + Adsorption in Aqueous Solutions Using Resonant Anomalous X-Ray Reflectivity. J Phys Chem C 120 (28): 15216–15223. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b04364.
MacFarlane, D. R., Kar, M., and Pringle, J. M. 2017. Fundamentals of Ionic Liquids, first edition, 1–29. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Masliyah, J. H., Czarnecki, J., and Xu, Z. 2011. Handbook on Theory and Practice of Bitumen Recovery From Athabasca Oil Sands Volume I: Theoretical Basis, 323–343. Cochrane, Alberta, Canada: Kingsley Knowledge Publishing.
Meyer, R. F. 1997. Word Heavy Crude Oil Resources. Presented at the 15th World Petroleum Congress, Beijing, China, 12–17 October. WPC-29196. https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/WPC-29196.
Modaresghazani, J., Moore, R. G., Mehta, S. A. et al. 2016. Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Temperature on Wettability of the Grosmont Carbonate Reservoir in Alberta. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 7–9 June. SPE-180706-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180706-MS.
Mohammed, M. A. and Babadagli, T. 2015. Wettability Alteration: A Comprehensive Review of Materials/Methods and Testing the Selected Ones on Heavy-Oil Containing Oil-Wet Systems. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 220: 54–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2015.02.006.
Mohammed, M. A. and Babadagli, T. 2016. Experimental Investigation of Wettability Alteration in Oil-Wet Reservoirs Containing Heavy Oil. SPE Res Eval & Eng 19 (4): 633–644. SPE-170034-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170034-PA.
Moulin, P. and Roques, H. 2003. Zeta Potential Measurement of Calcium Carbonate. J Colloid Interface Sci 261: 115–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9797(03)00057-2.
Naser, M. A., Permadi, A. K., Bae, W. et al. 2014. Steam-Induced Wettability Alteration Through Contact Angle Measurement, a Case Study in X Field, Indonesia. Presented at the SPE International Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Mangaf, Kuwait, 8–10 December. SPE-172909-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/172909-MS.
Ramé-Hart. 2019. DROPimage Advanced, http://www.ramehart.com/diadv.htm.
Roosta, A., Varzandeh, M. E. F., Khatibi, J., et al. 2009. Investigating the Mechanism of Thermally Induced Wettability Alteration. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 15–18 March. SPE-120354-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/120354-MS.
Sharma, G. and Mohanty, K. K. 2013. Wettability Alteration in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE J. 18 (4): 646–655. SPE-147306-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/147306-PA.
Sheng, J. J. 2013. Estimation of Oil Recovery Performance. In Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies, Chap. 15.5, 370–371. Kidlington, Oxford, UK: Gulf Professional Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386545-8.00015-4.
Sohal, M. A., Thyne, G., and Søgaard, E. G. 2017. Effect of the Temperature on Wettability and Optimum Wetting Conditions for Maximum Oil Recovery in a Carbonate Reservoir System. Energy Fuels 31 (4): 3557–3566. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02612.
Wagner, O. R. and Leach, R. O. 1959. Improving Oil Displacement Efficiency by Wettability Adjustment. Trans of the AIME 216 (1): 65–72. SPE-1101-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/1101-G.
Wei, Y. and Babadagli, T. 2016. Selection of Proper Chemicals to Improve the Performance of Steam Based Thermal Applications in Sands and Carbonates. Presented at the SPE Latin America and Caribbean Heavy and Extra Heavy Oil Conference, Lima, Peru, 19–20 October. SPE-181209-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181209-MS.
Wei, Y. and Babadagli, T. 2017a. Alteration of Interfacial Properties by Chemicals and Nanomaterials to Improve Heavy Oil Recovery at Elevated Temperatures. Energy Fuels 31 (11): 11866–11883. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b02173.
Wei, Y. and Babadagli, T. 2017b. Selection of New Generation Chemicals as Steam Additive for Cost Effective Heavy-Oil Recovery Applications. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 15–16 February. SPE-184975-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/184975-MS.
Wilson, L. A. 1977. Physico-Chemical Environment of Petroleum Reservoirs in Relation to Oil Recovery Systems. In Improved Oil Recovery by Surfactant and Polymer Flooding, first edition, ed. D. O. Shah, 1–26. New York City: Academic Press, Inc.
Winderasta, W., Lestari, E. S., Budiman, A. et al. 2018. Managing Reservoir Surveillance in the Duri Steam Flood Field. Presented at the Indonesian Petroleum Association 42nd Annual Convention and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2–4 May. IPA18-577-E. http://archives.datapages.com/data/ipa_pdf/2018/IPA18-577-E.htm.
Wu, Y., Shuler, P. J., Blanco, M. et al. 2008. An Experimental Study of Wetting Behavior and Surfactant EOR in Carbonates With Model Compounds. SPE J. 13 (1): 26–34. SPE-99612-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/99612-PA.
Yang, J., Dong, Z., and Lin, M. 2015. The Impact of Brine Composition and Salinity on the Wettability of Sandstone. J Pet Sci Technol 33 (4): 430–436. https://doi.org/10.1080/10916466.2014.990093.
Zhang, P. and Austad, T. 2005. The Relative Effects of Acid Number and Temperature on Chalk Wettability. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 2–4 February. SPE-92999-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/92999-MS.