Carbon Dioxide Induced Corrosion of Carbon Steel X65 Exposed to Nitrite Aqueous Solutions
- Silvia M. Vargas (BP) | Richard Woollam (BP) | William Durnie (BP) | Michael Hodges (BP)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2,279 - 2,291
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Nitrite, Nitrate, RCE, CO2 corrosion, Vanadium (III)
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 145 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Nitrate used to control reservoir souring in oil fields contains nitrite impurities. Nitrite is a strong oxidizer, and when used in souring-treatment fluids, the flow path often includes carbon-steel piping. Vanadium, also an oxidizer, is at times found in oilfield-production streams that commingle with souring-treatment fluids. The interactions between nitrite and vanadium and their effects on carbon steel X65 corrosion were investigated.
The effect of nitrite on corrosion was investigated using synthetic brine to simulate produced water [rich in carbon dioxide (CO2), pH value of approximately 5] and seawater (negligible CO2, pH value of approximately 7). Tests were conducted with carbon steel X65 exposed to synthetic brine at 25, 60, and 80°C using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). The test results demonstrate the following:
- The corrosivity of nitrite strongly depends on the pH level.
- Nitrite increases corrosion at pH of approximately 5 and is relatively benign at pH of approximately 7.
- Nitrite reduces to ammonium(thermodynamically stable in acid solutions),whereas vanadium(III) delays the formation of ammonium.
- Inhibited corrosion tests indicate that nitrite reduces the performance of the studied commercial corrosion inhibitors (CIs).
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Alowitz, M. J. and Scherer, M. M. 2002. Kinetics of Nitrate, Nitrite, and Cr(VI) Reduction by Iron Metal. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 (3): 299–306. https://doi.org/10.1021/es011000h.
Beeder, J., Andersen, T. R., Liengen, T. et al. 2007. Corrosion as Side Effect During Nitrate Treatment of Produced Water and Aquifer Water Injection. Presented at CORROSION 2007, Nashville, Tennessee, 11–15 March. NACE-07512.
Bénézeth, P., Dandurand, J. L., and Harrichoury, J. C. 2009. Solubility Product of Siderite (FeCO3) as a Function of Temperature (25–250°C). Chem. Geol. 265 (1–2): 3–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.03.015.
Braman, R. S. and Hendrix, S. A. 1989. Nanogram Nitrite and Nitrate Determination in Environment and Biological Materials by Vanadium(III) Reduction With Chemiluminescence Detection. Anal. Chem. 61 (24): 2715–2718. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00199a007.
Canevari, G. P. and Fiocco, R. J. 1997. Crude Oil Vanadium and Nickel Content Can Predict Emulsification Tendency. Proc., International Oil Spill Conference, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, Vol. 1, 309–314.
Choe, S., Liljestrand, H. M., and Khim, J. 2004. Nitrate Reduction by Zero-Valent Iron Under Different pH Regimes. Appl. Geochem. 19 (3): 335–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2003.08.001.
Donaldson, E. C., Chilingarian, B. U., and Yen, T. F. 1985. Enhanced Oil Recovery: I. Fundamentals and Analyses. New York City: Elsevier.
Enning, D. and Garrekfs, J. 2014. Corrosion of Iron by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: New Views on an Old Problem. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80 (4): 1226–1236. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02848-13.
Fan, X., Guan, X., Ma, J. et al. 2009. Kinetics and Corrosion Products of Aqueous Nitrate Reduction by Iron Powder Without Reaction Conditions Control. J. Environ. Sci. 21 (8): 1028–1035. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62378-5.
Ginner, J. L., Alvarez, P. J. J., Smith, S. L. et al. 2001. Nitrate and Nitrite Reduction by Fe0: Influence of Mass Transport, Temperature, and Denitrifying Microbes. Environ. Eng. Sci. 21 (2): 219–229. https://doi.org/10.1089/109287504773087381.
Golden, S. W. 2003. Managing Vanadium from High Metal Crude Oils. Report, Process Consulting Services, Houston.
Greenwood, N. and Earnshaw, A. 2012. Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Hamilton, W. A. 1985. Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria and Anaerobic Corrosion. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 39: 195–217. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.mi.39.100185.001211.
Hendrix, S. A. and Braman, R. S. 1995. Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite by Vanadium(III) Reduction With Chemiluminescence Detection. Methods 7 (1): 91–97. https://doi.org/10.1006/meth.1995.1013.
Hu, H.-Y., Goto, N., and Fujie, K. 2001. Effect of pH on the Reduction of Nitrite in Water by Metallic Iron. Water Res. 35 (11): 2789–2793. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(00)00570-4.
Huang, C.-P., Wang H.-W., and Chiu, P.-C. 1998. Nitrate Reduction by Metallic Iron. Water Res. 32 (8): 2257–2264. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00464-8.
Jenneman, G. E., Achour, M., and Jossten, M. W. 2009. The Corrosiveness of Nitrite in a Produced-Water System. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 20–22 April. SPE-121463-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/121463-MS.
Lee, W., Lewandowski, Z., Nielsen, P. H. et al. 1995. Role of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Corrosion of Mild Steel: A Review. Biofouling 8 (3): 165–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/08927019509378271.
Levenspiel, O. 1998. Chemical Reaction Engineering, third edition. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.
Li, D. and Duan, Z. 2007. The Speciation Equilibrium Coupling With Phase Equilibrium in the H2O-CO2-NaCl System from 0 to 250°C, from 0 to 1000 bar, and from 0 to 5 Molality of NaCl. Chem. Geol. 244: 730–751.
Marchin, L. M. and Collines, A. G. 1979. Flame Atomic Absorption Methods of Analysis of Oilfield Brines, Cadmium, Cesium, Chromium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, Rubidium, and Vanadium. Report, Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Department of Energy, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, June 1978.
Martin, R. L. 2008. Corrosion Consequences of Nitrate/Nitrite Additions to Oilfield Brines. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 2124 September. SPE-114923-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/114923-MS.
Roberge, P. R. 2000. Handbook of Corrosion Engineering. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Shriver, D., Weller, M., Oerton, T. et al. 2014. Inorganic Chemistry. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
Silvey, W. 1967. Occurrence of Selected Minor Elements in the Waters of California. Geological Survey, Water-Supply Paper 1535-L, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Stott, J. F. D., Dicken, G., Rizk, T. Y. et al. 2008. Corrosion Inhibition in PWRI Systems That Use Nitrate Treatment to Control SRB Activity and Reservoir Souring. Presented at CORROSION 2008, New Orleans, 16–20 March. NACE-08507.
Vargas, S. M., Woollam, R., Durnie, W. et al. 2017. Effect of Nitrate on Carbon Steel Corrosion. Presented at SPE International Conference on Oilfield Chemistry, Montgomery, Texas, 3–5 April. SPE-184512-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/184512-MS.
Wattana, P., Fogler, H. S., Yen, A. et al. 2005. Characterization of Polarity-Based Asphaltene Subfractions. Energy Fuels 19 (1): 101–110. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef0499372.
Yang, G. C. and Lee, H. L. 2005. Chemical Reduction of Nitrate by Non-Ionized Iron: Kinetics and Pathways. Water Res. 39 (5): 884–894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.11.030.