Proppant-Conductivity Testing Under Simulated Reservoir Conditions: Impact of Crushing, Embedment, and Diagenesis on Long-Term Production in Shales
- Abhinav Mittal (University of Oklahoma) | Chandra S. Rai (University of Oklahoma) | Carl H. Sondergeld (University of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,304 - 1,315
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Proppant conductivity, Diagenesis, Proppant crushing, Embedment, Fines migration
- 14 in the last 30 days
- 306 since 2007
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Hydraulic fractures act as conduits connecting a wellbore to nanodarcy-permeability unconventional reservoirs. Proppants are responsible for enhancing the fracture conductivity, and they help in maintaining high production rates. This study is focused on the measurement of long-term conductivity of proppant packs at simulated reservoir-temperature and pressure conditions. Various conductivity-impairment mechanisms such as proppant crushing, fines migration, embedment, and diagenesis are investigated.
Testing was performed with a conductivity cell that allows simultaneous measurement of fracture compaction and permeability. The proppant-pack performance during compression between metal and shale platens was compared. The proppant-filled fracture (concentration of 0.75-3 lbm/ft2) is subjected to axial load (5,000 psi) to simulate closure stress. Brine (3% NaCl + 0.5% KCl) is flowed through the pack at a constant rate (3 cm3/min) at 250°F during an extended duration of time (10-60 days). In this study, Ottawa sand proppant was used between platen facies fabricated from Vaca Muerta and Eagle Ford shales.
Testing between metal platens indicated that the reduction in permeability with 20/40-mesh Ottawa sand (˜30% during 12 days) was less than that of 60/100-mesh Ottawa sand, which suffered a 99% reduction in only 4 days.
Measurements with 20/40-mesh Ottawa sand between shale platens were conducted at 1.5 lbm/ft2. During a duration of 10 days, the Eagle Ford platens proppant pack exhibits a greater reduction in permeability, in comparison with Vaca Muerta platens. The normalized compaction for Eagle Ford shale platens is 20% more than Vaca Muerta platens because of greater proppant embedment. Particle-size analysis and scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM) images verify proppant crushing, fines migration, and embedment as dominant damage mechanisms. These factors are observed to depend on the testing of shales. The results suggest a substantial degradation of permeability during the initial 5 days of testing, after which the permeability appears to stabilize. Crushed proppant and dislodged shale-surface particles contribute to the fines generated; a greater concentration of fines is observed downstream.
In a separate study between Vaca Muerta platens, under similar closure stress and temperature conditions at 2-lbm/ft2 proppant concentration, the permeability reduced by almost three orders of magnitude during a duration of 60 days. It was also observed that growth of diagenetic smectite is accelerated by making the fluid more basic (pH of 10).
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