Recent Advances in Scale Prediction: Approach and Limitations
- Amy T. Kan (Rice University) | Joey (Zhaoyi) Dai (Rice University) | Guannan Deng (Rice University) | Khadouja Harouaka (Rice University) | Yi-Tseng Lu (Rice University) | Xin Wang (Rice University) | Yue Zhao (Rice University) | Mason B. Tomson (Rice University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2,209 - 2,220
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- scale prediction
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 238 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Numerous saturation indices and computer algorithms have been developed to determine whether, when, and where scale will form. However, scale prediction can still be challenging because the predictions from different models often differ significantly at extreme conditions. Furthermore, there is a great need to accurately interpret the partitioning of water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) between different phases, as well as the speciations of CO2 and H2S. This paper summarizes current developments in the equation-of-state (EOS) and Pitzer models to accurately model the partitioning of H2O, CO2, and H2S in hydrocarbon/aqueous phases and the aqueous ion activities at ultrahigh-temperature, ultrahigh-pressure, and mixed-electrolytes conditions. The equations derived from the Pitzer ion-interaction theory have been parameterized by regression of more than 10,000 experimental data from publications over the last 170-plus years using a genetic algorithm on the supercomputer DAVinCI at Rice University. With this new model, the 95% confidence intervals of the estimation errors for solution density are within 4×10–4 g/cm3. The solubility predictions of CO2 and H2S are accurate to within 4%. The saturation-index (SI) mean values for calcite (CaCO3), barite (BaSO4), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), anhydrite (CaSO4), and celestite (SrSO4) are accurate to within ±0.1—and for halite the values are within ±0.01—most of which are within experimental uncertainties. This model accurately defines the pH value of the production tubing at various temperature and pressure regimes and the risk of H2S exposure and corrosion. Furthermore, our model is able to predict the density of soluble chloride and sulfate SO2–4 salt solutions within ±0.1% relative error. The ability to accurately predict the density of a given solution at temperature and pressure allows one to deduce when freshwater breakthrough will occur. In addition, accurate predictions can only be reliable with accurate data input. The need to improve the accuracy of scale prediction with quality data will also be discussed.
|File Size||487 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Adams, L. H. and Hall, R. E. 1931. The Influence of Pressure on the Solubility of Sodium Chloride in Water. A New Method for the Measurement of the Solubilities of Electrolytes Under Pressure. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 21 (9): 183–194.
Appelo, C. A. J. 2015. Principles, Caveats and Improvements in Databases for Calculating Hydrogeochemical Reactions in Saline Waters From 0 to 200°C and 1 to 1000 atm. Appl. Geochem. 55 (April): 62–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.11.007.
Aqueous Solutions. 2017. The Geochemist’s Workbench, https://www.gwb.com. Champaign, Illinois: Aqueous Solutions (accessed 15 July 2017).
Baraka-Lokmane, S., Hurtevent, C., Zhou, H. et al. 2014. TOTAL’s Experience on the Development and Implementation of a Scale Management Strategy in Central Graben Fields. Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition, Aberdeen, 14–15 May. SPE-169757-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169757-MS.
Barrett, T. J. and Anderson, G. M. 1988. The Solubility of Sphalerite and Galena in 1–5 m NaCl Solutions to 300°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 52 (4): 813–820. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(88)90353-5.
Barrett, T. J., Anderson, G. M., and Lugowski, J. 1988. The Solubility of Hydrogen Sulphide in 0–5 m NaCl Solutions at 25°–95°C and One Atmosphere. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 52 (4): 807–811. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(88)90352-3.
Blauch, M. E., Myers, R. R., Moore, T. R. et al. 2009. Marcellus Shale Post-Frac Flowback Waters—Where Is All the Salt Coming From and What Are the Implications? Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, 23–25 September. SPE-125740-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/125740-MS.
Blount, C. W. 1977. Barite Solubilities and Thermodynamic Quantities up to 300 degrees C and 1400 bars. Am. Mineral. 62 (9–10): 942–957.
Bradford, A. 2014. Produced Water Volumes Climb Driven By Unconventional Oil. Report, BTU Analytics, Lakewood, Colorado, 8 October.
Cenegy, L. M., McAfee, C. A., and Kalfayan, L. J. 2011. Field Study of the Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting Downhole Scale Deposition in the North Dakota Bakken Formation. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 11–13 April. SPE-140977-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/140977-MS.
Dai, Z., Kan, A., Zhang, F. et al. 2015. A Thermodynamic Model for the Solubility Prediction of Barite, Calcite, Gypsum, and Anhydrite, and the Association Constant Estimation of CaSO(0)4 Ion Pair Up to 250°C and 22000 psi. J. Chem. Eng. Data 60 (3): 766–774. https://doi.org/10.1021/je5008873.
Dai, Z., Kan, A. T., Shi, W. et al. 2017a. Calcite and Barite Solubility Measurements in Mixed Electrolyte Solutions and Development of a Comprehensive Model for Water-Mineral-Gas Equilibrium of the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Ba-Sr-Cl-SO4-CO3-HCO3-CO2(aq)-H2O System Up to 250°C and 1500 bar. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56 (23): 6548–6561. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.7b00422.
Dai, Z., Kan, A. T., Shi, W. et al. 2017b. Solubility Measurements and Predictions of Gypsum, Anhydrite, and Calcite Over Wide Ranges of Temperature, Pressure, and Ionic Strength With Mixed Electrolytes. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 50 (2): 327–339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-016-1123-9.
Davison, W. 1991. The Solubility of Iron Sulphides in Synthetic and Natural Waters at Ambient Temperature. Aquat. Sci. 53 (4): 309–329. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00877139.
De Visscher, A., Vanderdeelen, J., Königsberger, E. et al. 2012. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 95. Alkaline Earth Carbonates in Aqueous Systems. Part 1. Introduction, Be and Mg. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 41 (1): 013105. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3675992.
Deng, G., Kan, A. T., Dai, Z. et al. 2018. Impact of High Calcium Concentration on Sulfate Scale Prediction at High Temperature From 120°C to 220°C Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, 20–21 June. SPE-190744-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190744-MS.
Douabul, A. A. and Riley, J. P. 1979. The Solubility of Gases in Distilled Water and Seawater—V. Hydrogen Sulphide. Deep Sea Res. A 26 (3): 259–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(79)90023-2.
Duan, Z. and Li, D. 2008. Coupled Phase and Aqueous Species Equilibrium of the H2O–CO2–NaCl–CaCO3 System From 0 to 250°C, 1 to 1000 bar With NaCl Concentrations up to Saturation of Halite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 72 (20): 5128–5145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2008.07.025.
Ellis, A. J. and Golding, R. M. 1963. The Solubility of Carbon Dioxide Above 100°C in Water and in Sodium Chloride Solutions. Amer. J. Sci. 261 (1): 47–60. https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.261.1.47.
Expro Petrotech. 2017. MultiScale. Petrotech, http://multiscale.no/ (accessed 10 May 2017).
Fernández-Prini, R., Alvarez, J. L., and Harvey, A. H. 2003. Henry’s Constants and Vapor–Liquid Distribution Constants for Gaseous Solutes in H2O and D2O at High Temperatures. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 32 (2): 903–916. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1564818.
Gaspar, J., Davis, D., Camacho, C. et al. 2016. Biogenic versus Thermogenic H2S Source Determination in Bakken Wells: Considerations for Biocide Application. Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 3 (4): 127–132. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00075.
Harned, H. S. and Davis, R.Jr. 1943. The Ionization Constant of Carbonic Acid in Water and the Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water and Aqueous Salt Solutions From 0 to 50°C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 65 (10): 2030–2037. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01250a059.
He, S. and Morse, J. W. 1993. The Carbonic Acid System and Calcite Solubility in Aqueous Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 Solutions From 0 to 90°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 57 (15): 3533–3554. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(93)90137-L.
Helgeson, H. 1985. SUPCRT, Unpublished Thermodynamic Database for Minerals, Aqueous Species and Gases. University of California, Berkeley, California.
Helgeson, H. C. and Kirkham, D. H. 1974. Theoretical Prediction of the Thermodynamic Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes at High Pressures and Temperatures; I, Summary of the Thermodynamic/Electrostatic Properties of the Solvent. Am. J. Sci. 274 (10): 1089–1198. https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.274.10.1089.
Holmes, H. F. and Mesmer, R. E. 1996. Aqueous Solutions of the Alkaline-Earth Metal Chlorides at Elevated Temperatures. Isopiestic Molalities and Thermodynamic Properties. J. Chem. Thermodyn. 28 (12): 1325–1358. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.1996.0117.
Holmes, H. F., Busey, R. H., Simonson, J. M. et al. 1994. CaCl2(aq) at Elevated Temperatures. Enthalpies of Dilution, Isopiestic Molalities, and Thermodynamic Properties. J. Chem. Thermodyn. 26 (3): 271–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9614(94)90005-1.
Honeywell. 2017. UniSim Design Suite Honeywell Process Solution, https://www.honeywellprocess.com/en-US/explore/products/advanced-applications/unisim/Pages/unisim-design-suite.aspx (accessed 20 March 2017).
Kaasa, B. 1998. Prediction of pH, Mineral Precipitation and Multiphase Equilibria During Oil Recovery. Trondheim, Norway: Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
Kan, A. T. and Tomson, M. B. 2012. Scale Prediction for Oil and Gas Production. SPE J. 17 (2): 362–378. SPE-132237-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/132237-PA.
Kan, A. T., Garcia-Bermudes, M., Dai, Z. J. et al. 2017. Modeling H2S Partitioning in Deep Water Production Systems. Presented at the SPE International Conference on Oilfield Chemistry, Montgomery, Texas, 3–5 April. SPE-184517-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/184517-MS.
KBC. 2017. Multiflash – PVT Modelling and Flow Assurance Software. KBC Advanced Technologies, https://www.kbc.global/software (accessed 5 February 2017).
Kharaka, Y. K., Gunter, W. D., Aggarwal, P. K. et al. 1989. SOLMINEQ. 88: A Computer Program for Geochemical Modeling of Water-Rock Interactions. Report, Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, Denver.
Kontogeorgis, G. M., Folas, G. K., and Wiley, I. 2010. Thermodynamic Models for Industrial Applications: From Classical and Advanced Mixing Rules to Association Theories. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Liu, Y., Zhang, Z., Bhandari, N. et al. 2017. New Approach to Study Iron Sulfide Precipitation Kinetics, Solubility, and Phase Transformation. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 56 (31): 9016–9027. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.7b01615.
Michelsen, M. L. 1994. Calculation of Multiphase Equilibrium. Comput. Chem. Eng. 18 (7): 545–550. https://doi.org/10.1016/0098-1354(93)E0017-4.
Millero, F. J. 2001. The Physical Chemistry of Natural Waters. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.
Ng, H.-J., Chen, C. J., and Schroeder, H. 2001. Water Content of Natural Gas Systems Containing Acid Gas. GPA Project 945, Gas Processors Association, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Nighswander, J. A., Kaiogerakis, N., and Mehrotra, A. K. 1989. Solubilities of Carbon Dioxide in Water and 1 wt% Sodium Chloride Solution at Pressures Up to 10 MPa and Temperatures From 80 to 200°C. J. Chem. Eng. Data 34 (3): 355–360. https://doi.org/10.1021/je00057a027.
OLI. 2017. OLI Studio Scalechem. OLI Systems, https://www.olisystems.com/oli-studio-scalechem (accessed 12 Janaury 2017).
Pabalan, R. T. and Pitzer, K. S. 1988. Heat Capacity and Other Thermodynamic Properties of Na2SO4(aq) in Hydrothermal Solutions and the Solubilities of Sodium Sulfate Minerals in the System Na-Cl-SO4-OH-H2O to 300°C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 52 (10): 2393–2404. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(88)90296-7.
Péneloux, A., Rauzy, E., and Fréze, R. 1982. A Consistent Correction for Redlich-Kwong-Soave Volumes. Fluid Phase Equilibria 8 (1): 7–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(82)80002-2.
Peng, D. Y. and Robinson, D. B. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen. 15 (1): 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Pitzer, K. S. 1973. Thermodynamics of Electrolytes. 1. Theoretical Basis and General Equations. J. Phys. Chem. 77 (2): 268–277. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100621a026.
Pitzer, K. S. 1995. Thermodynamics. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Pitzer, K. S. and Mayorga, G. 1973. Thermodynamics of Electrolytes. II. Activity and Osmotic Coefficients for Strong Electrolytes With One or Both Ions Univalent. J. Phys. Chem. 77 (19): 2300–2308. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100638a009.
Pitzer, K. S., Peiper, J. C., and Busey, R. H. 1984. Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13 (1): 1–102. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555709.
Polya, D. A., Woolley, E. M., Simonson, J. M. et al. 2001. The Enthalpy of Dilution and Thermodynamics of Na2CO3(aq) and NaHCO3(aq) From T=298 K to T=523.15 K and Pressure of 40 MPa. J. Chem. Thermodyn. 33 (2): 205–243. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.2001.0754.
Prutton, C. F. and Savage, R. L. 1945. The Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Calcium Chloride-Water Solutions at 75, 100, 120° and High Pressures. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 67 (9): 1550–1554. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01225a047.
Rickard, D. 2006. The Solubility of FeS. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 70 (23): 5779–5789. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2006.02.029.
Rickard, D. and Luther, G. W. 2007. Chemistry of Iron Sulfides. Chem. Rev. 107 (2): 514–562. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr0503658.
Rowland, D., Königsberger, E., Hefter, G. et al. 2015. Aqueous Electrolyte Solution Modelling: Some Limitations of the Pitzer Equations. Appl. Geochem. 55 (April): 170–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.09.021.
Rumpf, B., Nicolaisen, H., Öcal, C. et al. 1994. Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Chloride: Experimental Results and Correlation. J. Solution Chem. 23 (3): 431–448. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00973113.
Sharygin, A. V. and Wood, R. H. 1997. Volumes and Heat Capacities of Aqueous Solutions of Hydrochloric Acid at Temperatures From 298.15 K to 623 K and Pressures to 28 MPa. J. Chem. Thermodyn. 29 (2): 125–148. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcht.1996.0137.
Shen, D., Shcolnik, D., Steiner, W. H. et al. 2011. Evaluation of Scale Inhibitors in Marcellus Waters Containing High Levels of Dissolved Iron. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 11–13 April. SPE-141145-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/141145-MS.
Shi, W., Kan, A. T., Fan, C. F. et al. 2012. Solubility of Barite Up to 250°C and 1500 bar in Up to 6 m NaCl Solution. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51 (7): 3119–3128. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie2020558.
Shi, W., Kan, A. T., Zhang, N. et al. 2013. Dissolution of Calcite at Up to 250°C and 1450 bar and the Presence of Mixed Salts. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52 (6): 2439–2448. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie302190e.
Sill, H. F. 1916. The Influence of Pressure on Solubility. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 38 (12): 2632–2643. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja02269a007.
Silva, D., Sorbie, K. S., and Mackay, E. J. 2016. Modelling CaCO3 Scale in CO2 Water Alternating Gas CO2-WAG processes. Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. SPE-179893-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179893-MS.
Sturchio, N. C., Banner, J. L., Binz, C. M. et al. 2001. Radium Geochemistry of Ground Waters in Paleozoic Carbonate Aquifers, Midcontinent. Appl. Geochem. 16 (1): 109–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(00)00014-7.
Suleimenov, O. M. and Krupp, R. E. 1994. Solubility of Hydrogen Sulfide in Pure Water and in NaCl Solutions, From 20 to 320°C and at Saturation Pressures. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 58 (11): 2433–2444. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(94)90022-1.
Tagirov, B. R., Suleimenov, O. M., and Seward, T. M. 2007. Zinc Complexation in Aqueous Sulfide Solutions: Determination of the Stoichiometry and Stability of Complexes via ZnS(cr) Solubility Measurements at 100°C and 150 bars. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 71 (20): 4942–4953. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2007.08.012.
Takenouchi, S. and Kennedy, G. C. 1964. The Binary System H2O-CO2 at High Temperatures and Pressures. Am. J. Sci. 262 (9): 1055–1074. https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.262.9.1055.
United States Geological Survey (USGS). 2017. PHREEQC (Version 3)—A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-Reaction, One-Dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations US Geological Survey, https://wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/ (accessed 15 August 2016).
VLXE Advance PVT Simplified. 2017. VLXE, http://www.vlvx.com/modules (accessed 24 January 2017).
Wagner, W. and Pruß, A. 2002. The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 31 (2): 387–535. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1461829.
Zhu, C. 2004a. Coprecipitation in the Barite Isostructural Family: 1. Binary Mixing Properties. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 68 (16): 3327–3337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2003.10.014.
Zhu, C. 2004b. Coprecipitation in the Barite Isostructural Family: 2. Numerical Simulations of Reactions and Mass Transport. Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 68 (16): 3339–3349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2003.10.013.
Zielinski, R. A., Otton, J. K., and Budahn, J. R. 2001. Use of Radium Isotopes to Determine the Age and Origin of Radioactive BaSO4 at Oil-Field Production Sites. Environ. Pollut. 113 (3): 299–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00188-3.