Effect of Nanoscale Pore-Size Distribution on Fluid Phase Behavior of Gas-Improved Oil Recovery in Shale Reservoirs
- Sheng Luo (Texas A&M University) | Jodie L. Lutkenhaus (Texas A&M University) | Hadi Nasrabadi (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- March 2020
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2020.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- gas injection, phase behavior, pore size distribution, confinement effect, shale oil
- 41 in the last 30 days
- 105 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The improved oil recovery (IOR) of unconventional shale reservoirs has attracted much interest in recent years. Gas injection, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and natural gas, is one of the most considered techniques for its sweep efficiency and effectiveness in low-permeability reservoirs. However, the uncertainties of fluid phase behavior in shale reservoirs pose a great challenge in evaluating the performance of a gas-injection operation. Shale reservoirs typically have macroscale to nanoscale pore-size distribution in the porous space. In fractures and macropores, the fluid shows bulk behavior, but in nanopores, the phase behavior is significantly altered by the confinement effect. The integrated behavior of reservoir fluids in this complex environment remains uncertain.
In this study, we investigate the nanoscale pore-size-distribution effect on the phase behavior of reservoir fluids in gas injection for shale reservoirs. A case of Anadarko Basin shale oil is used. The pore-size distribution is discretized as a multiscale system with pores of specific diameters. The phase equilibria of methane injection into the multiscale system are calculated. The constant-composition expansions are simulated for oil mixed with various fractions of injected gas. It is found that fluid in nanopores becomes supercritical with injected gas, but lowering the pressure to less than the bubblepoint turns it into the subcritical state. The bubblepoint is generally lower than the bulk and the degree of deviation depends on the amount of injected gas. The modeling of confined-fluid swelling shows that fluid swelled from nanopores is predicted to contain more oil than the swelled fluid at bulk state.
|File Size||955 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Alfi, M., Nasrabadi, H., and Banerjee, D. 2016. Experimental Investigation of Confinement Effect on Phase Behavior of Hexane, Heptane and Octane Using Lab-on-a-Chip Technology. Fluid Phase Equilib 423 (15 September): 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2016.04.017.
Alharthy, N., Teklu, T. W., Kazemi, H. et al. 2017. Enhanced Oil Recovery in Liquid-Rich Shale Reservoirs: Laboratory to Field. SPE Res Eval & Eng 21 (1): 137–159. SPE-175034-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/175034-PA.
Bear, J., Tsang, C.-F., and de Marsily, G. ed. 1993. Flow and Contaminant Transport in Fractured Rock. San Diego, California, USA: Academic Press.
Chalmers, G. R., Bustin, R. M., and Power, I. M. 2012. Characterization of Gas Shale Pore Systems by Porosimetry, Pycnometry, Surface Area, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy/Transmission Electron Microscopy Image Analyses: Examples from the Barnett, Woodford, Haynesville, Marcellus, and Doig Units. AAPG Bull 96 (6): 1099–1119. https://doi.org/10.1306/10171111052.
Chen, C., Balhoff, M. T., and Mohanty, K. K. 2014. Effect of Reservoir Heterogeneity on Primary Recovery and CO2 Huff ‘n’ Puff Recovery in Shale-Oil Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (3): 404–413. SPE-164553-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/164553-PA.
Choi, E. S., Cheema, T., and Islam, M. R. 1997. A New Dual-Porosity/Dual-Permeability Model with Non-Darcian Flow Through Fractures. J Pet Sci Eng 17 (3–4): 331–344. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(96)00050-2.
Deng, L. and King, M. J. 2016. Estimation of Relative Permeability from Laboratory Displacement Experiments Application of the Analytic Solution with Capillary Corrections. Paper presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 7–10 November. SPE-183139-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/183139-MS.
Gale, J. F., Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E. et al. 2014. Natural Fractures in Shale: A Review and New Observations. AAPG Bull 98 (11): 2165–2216. https://doi.org/10.1306/08121413151.
Hawthorne, S. B., Gorecki, C. D., Sorensen, J. A. et al. 2013. Hydrocarbon Mobilization Mechanisms from Upper, Middle, and Lower Bakken Reservoir Rocks Exposed to CO2. Paper presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 5–7 November. SPE-167200-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167200-MS.
Hoffman, B. T. 2012. Comparison of Various Gases for Enhanced Recovery from Shale Oil Reservoirs. Paper presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 14–18 April. SPE-154329-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154329-MS.
Jin, B. and Nasrabadi, H. 2016. Phase Behavior of Multi-Component Hydrocarbon Systems in Nano-Pores Using Gauge-GCMC Molecular Simulation. Fluid Phase Equilib 425 (15 October): 324–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2016.06.018.
Jin, B., Bi, R., and Nasrabadi, H. 2017. Molecular Simulation of the Pore Size Distribution Effect on Phase Behavior of Methane Confined in Nanopores. Fluid Phase Equilib 452 (25 November): 94–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2017.08.017.
Jin, Z. 2018. Bubble/Dew Point and Hysteresis of Hydrocarbons in Nanopores from Molecular Perspective. Fluid Phase Equilib 458 (25 February): 177–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2017.11.022.
Jin, Z. and Firoozabadi, A. 2016. Thermodynamic Modeling of Phase Behavior in Shale Media. SPE J. 21 (1): 190–207. SPE-176015-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/176015-PA.
Ko, L. T., Loucks, R. G., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2017. Origin and Characterization of Eagle Ford Pore Networks in the South Texas Upper Cretaceous Shelf. AAPG Bull 101 (3): 387–418. https://doi.org/10.1306/08051616035.
Lake, L. W., Johns, R., Rossen, B. et al. 2014. Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery. Richardson, Texas, USA: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Li, Z., Jin, Z., and Firoozabadi, A. 2014. Phase Behavior and Adsorption of Pure Substances and Mixtures and Characterization in Nanopore Structures by Density Functional Theory. SPE J. 19 (6): SPE-169819-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/169819-PA.
Liu, J., Wang, L., Xi, S. et al. 2017. Adsorption and Phase Behavior of Pure/Mixed Alkanes in Nanoslit Graphite Pores: An iSAFT Application. Langmuir 33 (42): 11189–11202. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b02055.
Loucks, R. G., Reed, R. M., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2009. Morphology, Genesis, and Distribution of Nanometer-Scale Pores in Siliceous Mudstones of the Mississippian Barnett Shale. J Sediment Res 79 (12): 848–861. https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2009.092.
Luo, S., Lutkenhaus, J. L., and Nasrabadi, H. 2015. Experimental Study of Confinement Effect on Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior in Nano-Scale Porous Media Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, USA, 28–30 September. SPE-175095-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175095-MS.
Luo, S., Lutkenhaus, J. L., and Nasrabadi, H. 2016. Confinement-Induced Supercriticality and Phase Equilibria of Hydrocarbons in Nanopores. Langmuir 32 (44): 11506–11513. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03177.
Luo, S., Lutkenhaus, J. L., and Nasrabadi, H. 2017. Multi-Scale Fluid Phase Behavior Simulation in Shale Reservoirs by a Pore-Size-Dependent Equation of State. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9–11 October. SPE-187422-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/187422-MS.
Nichita, D. V., de los Angeles Duran Valencia, C., and Gomez, S. 2006. Volume-Based Thermodynamics Global Phase Stability Analysis. Chem Eng Commun 193 (10): 1194–1216. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986440500440165.
Nichita, D. V., Gomez, S., and Luna, E. 2002. Multiphase Equilibria Calculation by Direct Minimization of Gibbs Free Energy with a Global Optimization Method. Comput Chem Eng 26 (12): 1703–1724. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-1354(02)00144-8.
Nojabaei, B., Johns, R. T., and Chu, L. 2013. Effect of Capillary Pressure on Phase Behavior in Tight Rocks and Shales. SPE J. 16 (3): 281–289. SPE-159258-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/159258-PA.
Peng, D.-Y. and Robinson, D. B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Ind & Eng Chem Fund 15 (1): 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Phi, T. and Schechter, D. 2017. CO2 EOR Simulation in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs: An Eagle Ford Case Study. Paper presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–16 February. SPE-185034-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/185034-MS.
Rafatian, N. and Capsan, J. 2015. Petrophysical Characterization of the Pore Space in Permian Wolfcamp Rocks. Petrophysics 56 (1): 45–57. SPWLA-2015-v56n1a4.
Sandler, S. I. 2010. The Generalized van der Waals Partition Function as a Basis for Excess Free Energy Models. J Supercrit Fluids 55 (2): 496–502. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2010.10.014.
Stimpson, B. C. and Barrufet, M. A. 2016. Effects of Confined Space on Production from Tight Reservoirs. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, UAE, 26–28 September. SPE-181686-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181686-MS.
Thommes, M. and Findenegg, G. H. 1994. Pore Condensation and Critical-Point Shift of a Fluid in Controlled-Pore Glass. Langmuir 10 (11): 4270–4277. https://doi.org/10.1021/la00023a058.
Travalloni, L., Castier, M., and Tavares, F. W. 2014. Phase Equilibrium of Fluids Confined in Porous Media from an Extended Peng–Robinson Equation of State. Fluid Phase Equilib 362 (25 January): 335–341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2013.10.049.
Vera, J. H. and Prausnitz, J. M. 1972. Generalized van der Waals Theory for Dense Fluids. Chem Eng J 3: 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-9467(72)85001-9.
Wang, L., Tian, Y., Yu, X. et al. 2017. Advances in Improved/Enhanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Tight and Shale Reservoirs. Fuel 210 (15 December): 425–445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2017.08.095.
Wang, L., Yin, X., Neeves, K. B. et al. 2016. Effect of Pore-Size Distribution on Phase Transition of Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Nanoporous Media. SPE J. 21 (6): 1981–1995. SPE-170894-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170894-PA.
Warpinski, N. 1985. Measurement of Width and Pressure in a Propagating Hydraulic Fracture. SPE J. 25 (1): 46–54. SPE-11648-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/11648-PA.
Yan, B., Killough, J. E., Wang, Y. et al. 2013. Novel Approaches for the Simulation of Unconventional Reservoirs. Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA, 12–14 August. URTEC-1581172-MS. https://doi.org/10.1190/urtec2013-131.
Yan, B., Mi, L., Wang, Y. et al. 2017. Mechanistic Simulation Workflow in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Conference, Montgomery, Texas, USA, 20–22 February. SPE-182623-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/182623-MS.
Yu, W., Lashgari, H. R., Wu, K. et al. 2015. CO2 Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Bakken Tight Oil Reservoirs. Fuel 159 (1 November): 354–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.06.092.
Yu, Y. and Sheng, J. J. 2016. Experimental Investigation of Light Oil Recovery from Fractured Shale Reservoirs by Cyclic Water Injection. Paper presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 23–26 May. SPE-180378-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180378-MS.
Zhang, Y., Yu, W., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 2017. Investigation of Nanopore Confinement on Fluid Flow in Tight Reservoirs. J Pet Sci Eng 150 (February): 265–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.11.005.