A Semianalytical Model for Simulating Combined Electromagnetic Heating and Solvent-Assisted Gravity Drainage
- Lanxiao Hu (University of Alberta) | Huazhou A. Li (University of Alberta) | Tayfun Babadagli (University of Alberta) | Majid Ahmadloo (TRTech)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,248 - 1,270
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Solvent-assisted gravity drainage, Semi-analytical model, Process optimization, Heavy oil recovery, Electromagnetic heating
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 183 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Solvent/thermal hybrid methods have been proposed recently to enhance heavy-oil recovery and to overcome the shortcomings that are encountered when either method is solely applied. One of the methods for this hybridization is to combine electromagnetic (EM) heating and solvent injection to facilitate heavy-oil production by gravity drainage. This approach has several advantages including reduced CO2 emissions, decreased water consumption, and appropriateness for water-hostile reservoirs. We are currently lacking any mathematical model for better understanding, designing, and optimizing this hybrid technique, which is partly attributed to this technique still being in its infancy.
We propose a semianalytical model to predict the oil-flow rate resulting from the combined EM heating and solvent-assisted gravity drainage. The model first calculates the temperature distribution within the EM-excited zone caused by the radiation-dominated EM heating. Using different attenuation coefficients within and beyond the vapor chamber, the model can properly describe the corresponding temperature responses in these regions. Next, an average temperature of the chamber edge contributed by EM heating is used to estimate the temperature-dependent properties, such as vapor/liquid equilibrium ratios (K-values), heavy-oil/solvent-mixture viscosity, and solvent diffusivity. Subsequently, a 1D diffusion equation is used to calculate the solvent-concentration distribution ahead of the chamber edge. Eventually, the oil-flow rate is evaluated with the calculated temperature and solvent distributions ahead of the chamber edge. The proposed model is validated against the experimental results obtained in our previous study, and the predicted oil-flow rate agrees reasonably well with the experimental data.
The proposed model can efficiently predict the oil-flow rate of this hybrid process. We conduct sensitivity analyses to examine the effect of major influential factors on the performance of this hybrid technique, including EM heating powers, solvent types, solvent-injection pressures, and initial reservoir temperatures. The modeling results demonstrate that a higher EM heating power, a heavier solvent, and a higher solvent-injection pressure could accelerate the oil-recovery rate, but tend to lower the net present value (NPV) and increase the energy consumption. In summary, the newly proposed model provides an efficient tool to understand, design, and optimize the combined technique of EM heating and solvent-assisted gravity drainage.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||23|
Abernethy, E. R. 1976. Production Increase of Heavy Oils by Electromagnetic Heating. J Can Pet Technol 15 (3): 91–97. PETSOC-76-03-12. https://doi.org/10.2118/76-03-12.
Al-Harahsheh, M., Kingman, S., Saeid, A. et al. 2009. Dielectric Properties of Jordanian Oil Shales. Fuel Process. Technol. 90 (10): 1259–1264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.06.012.
Allen, J. C. and Redford, D. A. 1978. Combination Solvent-Noncondensable Gas Injection Method for Recovering Petroleum from Viscous Petroleum-Containing Formations Including Tar Sand Deposits. US Patent No. 4,109,720.
Bera, A. and Babadagli, T. 2017. Effect of Native and Injected Nano-Particles on the Efficiency of Heavy Oil Recovery by Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Heating. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 153 (May): 244–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.03.051.
Bird, R. B., Steward, W. E., and Lightfoot, E. N. 2002. Transport Phenomena. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.
Bogdanov, I., Cambon, S., Mujica, M. et al. 2016. Heavy Oil Recovery via Combination of Radio-Frequency Heating With Solvent Injection. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 7–9 June. SPE-180709-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180709-MS.
Butler, R. M. and Mokrys, I. J. 1989. Solvent Analog Model of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. AOSTRA Journal of Research 5: 17–32.
Butler, R. M. 1994. Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Concept, Development, Performance and Future. J Can Pet Technol 33 (2): 44–50. PETSOC-94-02-05. https://doi.org/10.2118/94-02-05.
Butler, R. M. 1997. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. Calgary, Alberta: GravDrain.
Cardwell, W. T. Jr. and Parsons, R. L. 1949. Gravity Drainage Theory. Trans. AIME. 179 (1): 199–215. SPE-949199-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/949199-G.
Carrizales, M. A. 2010. Recovery of Stranded Heavy Oil by Electromagnetic Heating. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Carrizales, M. A., Lake, L. W., and Johns, R. T. 2010. Multiphase Fluid Flow Simulation of Heavy Oil Recovery by Electromagnetic Heating. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129730-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129730-MS.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). 2013. STARS User’s Guide, Version 2013. Calgary, Alberta: CMG.
Das, S. K. and Butler, R. M. 1996. Diffusion Coefficients of Propane and Butane in Peace River Bitumen. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 74 (6): 985–992. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450740623.
Das, S. K. and Butler, R. M. 1998. Mechanism of the Vapor Extraction Process for Heavy Oil and Bitumen. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 21 (1–2): 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00002-3.
Davletbaev, A. Y., Kovaleva. L. A., and Nasyrov, N. M. 2008. Numerical Simulation of Injection of a Solvent Into a Production Well Under Electromagnetic Action. Fluid Dyn. 43 (4): 583–589. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0015462808040108.
Dong, L. 2012. Effect of Vapor-Liquid Phase Behavior of Steam-Light Hydrocarbon Systems on Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process for Bitumen Recovery. Fuel 95 (May): 159–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.10.044.
Fanchi, J. R. 1993. Feasibility of Near-Wellbore Heating by Electromagnetic Irradiation. SPE Advanced Technology Series 1 (2): 161–169. SPE-20483-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20483-PA.
Faradonbeh, M. R., Harding, T. G., and Abedi, J. 2017. Semianalytical Modeling of Steam/Solvent Gravity Drainage of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: Unsteady-State Model With Curved Interface. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (1): 134–148. SPE-170123-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170123-PA.
Gadani, D. H., Rana, V. A., Bhatnagar, S. P. et al. 2012. Effect of Salinity on the Dielectric Properties of Water. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys. 50 (June): 405–410.
Gates, I. D. 2010. Solvent-Aided Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage in Thin Oil Sand Reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 74 (3–4): 138–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2010.09.003.
Ghannadi, S., Irani, M., and Chalaturnyk, R. 2016. Overview of Performance and Analytical Modeling Techniques for Electromagnetic Heating and Applications to Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Process Startup. SPE J. 21 (2): 311–333. SPE-178427-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/178427-PA.
Godard, A. and Rey-Bethbeder, F. 2011. Radio Frequency Heating, Oil Sand Recovery Improvement. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12–14 December. SPE-150561-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/150561-MS.
Gupta, S. C. and Gittins, S. D. 2006. Christina Lake Solvent Aided Process Pilot. J Can Pet Technol 45 (9): 15–18. PETSOC-06-09-TN. https://doi.org/10.2118/06-09-TN.
Gupta, S. C. and Gittins, S. D. 2012. An Investigation Into Optimal Solvent Use and Nature of Vapor/Liquid Interface in Solvent-Aided SAGD Process With a Semi-Analytical Approach. SPE J. 17 (4): 1255–1264. SPE-146671-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/146671-PA.
Gupta, S. C., Gittins, S., Sood, A. et al. 2010. Optimal Amount of Solvent in Solvent Aided Process. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-137543-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/137543-MS.
Haghighat, P. and Maini, B. B. 2013. Effect of Temperature on VAPEX Performance. J Can Pet Technol 52 (6): 408–416. SPE-157799-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/157799-PA.
Hassanzadeh, H. and Harding. T. G. 2016. Analysis of Conductive Heat Transfer During In-Situ Electrical Heating of Oil Sands. Fuel 178 (15 August): 290–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.03.070.
Hong, Y.-D., Lin, B.-Q., Li, H. et al. 2016. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Microwave Heating Coal Sample With Varying Parameters. Appl. Therm. Eng. 93 (25 January): 1145–1154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.10.041.
Hu, L., Li, H. A., and Ahmadloo, M. 2018. Determination of the Permittivity of n-Hexane/Oil Sands Mixtures Over the Frequency Range of 200 MHz to 10 GHz. Can. J. Chem. Eng. (In press).
Hu, L., Li, H. A., Babadagli, T. et al. 2016a. Experimental Investigation of Combined Electromagnetic Heating and Solvent Assisted Gravity Drainage for Heavy Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 7–9 June. SPE-180747-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180747-MS.
Hu, L., Li, H. A., Babadagli, T. et al. 2016b. A New Semi-Analytical Model for Simulating Combined Electromagnetic Heating and Solvent Assisted Gravity Drainage. Oral presentation of WHOC16-165 given at the World Heavy Oil Congress, Calgary, 7–9 September.
Hu, L., Li, H. A., Babadagli, T. et al. 2017. Experimental Investigation of Combined Electromagnetic Heating and Solvent Assisted Gravity Drainage for Heavy Oil Recovery. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 154 (June): 589–601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.10.001.
Irani, M. and Cokar, M. 2016. Discussion on the Effects of Temperature on Thermal Properties in the Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage (SAGD) Process. Part 1: Thermal Conductivity. SPE J. 21 (2): 334–352. SPE-178426-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/178426-PA.
Ivory, J., Chang, J., Coates, R. et al. 2010. Investigation of Cyclic Solvent Injection Process for Heavy Oil Recovery. J Can Pet Technol 49 (9): 22–33. SPE-140662-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140662-PA.
Keshavarz, M., Okuno, R., and Babadagli, T. 2014. A Semi-Analytical Solution to Optimize Single-Component Solvent Coinjection With Steam During SAGD. Fuel 144 (15 March): 400–414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.12.030.
Li, H., Zheng, S., and Yang, D. 2013. Enhanced Swelling Effect and Viscosity Reduction of Solvent(s)/CO2/Heavy-Oil Systems. SPE J. 18 (4): 695–707. SPE-150168-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/150168-PA.
Liu, H., Cheng, L., Li, C. et al. 2017. An Investigation Into Temperature Distribution and Heat Loss Rate Within the Steam Chamber in Expanding-Solvent SAGD Process. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 15–16 February. SPE-184963-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/184963-MS.
Lobe, V. M. 1973. A Model for the Viscosity of Liquid-Liquid Mixtures. Master’s thesis, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York.
Lowe, D. F., Oubre, C. L., and Ward, C. H. 2000. Soil Vapor Extraction Using Radio Frequency Heating: Resource Manual and Technology Demonstration. Boca Raton, Florida: Lewis Publishers.
Metaxas, A. C. and Meredith, R. J. 1983. Industrial Microwave Heating. Stevenage, UK: Institution of Engineering and Technology.
Nasr, T. N., Beaulieu, G., Golbeck, H. et al. 2003. Novel Expanding Solvent-SAGD Process ES-SAGD. J Can Pet Technol 42 (1): 13–16. PETSOC-03-01-TN. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-01-TN.
Nenniger, J. and Nenniger, E. 2008. Method and Apparatus for Stimulating Heavy Oil Production. US Patent No. 7,363,973.
Reid, R. C., Prausnitz, J. M., and Sherwood, T. K. 1977. The Properties of Gases and Liquids. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Reis, J. C. 1992. A Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Model for Tar Sands: Linear Geometry. J Can Pet Technol 31 (10): 14–20. PETSOC-92-10-01. https://doi.org/10.2118/92-10-01.
Rezaei, N., Mohammadzadeh, O., and Chatzis, I. 2010. Warm VAPEX: A Thermally Improved Vapor Extraction Process for Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen. Energy Fuels 24 (11): 5934–5946. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef100749z.
Rottenfusser, B. and Ranger, M. A. 2004. A Geological Comparison of Six Projects in the Athabasca Oil Sands. Oral presentation given at the Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists/Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists GeoConvention, Calgary, 31 May–4 June.
Sahni, A., Kumar, M., and Knapp, R. B. 2000. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE/AAPG Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach, California, 19–22 June. SPE-62550-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/62550-MS.
Trautman,M., Ehresman, D., Edmunds, N. et al. 2013. Effective Solvent Extraction SystemIncorporating Electromagnetic Heating. US Patent 8,616,273 B2.
Wharton, R. P., Rau, R. N., and Best, D. L. 1980. Electromagnetic Propagation Logging: Advances in Technique and Interpretation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 21–24 September. SPE-9267-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/9267-MS.
Wise, S. and Patterson, C. 2016. Reducing Supply Cost With ESEIEH Pronounced Easy. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 7–9 June. SPE-180729-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/180729-MS.
Yaws, C. L. 2003. Yaws’ Handbook of Thermodynamic and Physical Properties of Chemical Compounds. New York City: Knovel.
Younglove, B. A. and Ely, J. F. 1987. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids. II. Methane, Ethane, Propane, Isobutane, and Normal Butane. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16 (4): 577–798. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.555785.