Predicting Geomechanical Dynamics of the Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Process. Part I: Mohr-Coulomb (MC) Dilative Model
- Mazda Irani (Ashaw Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,223 - 1,247
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SAGD, Mohr-Coulomb (MC) Model, Dilation
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 153 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
In the steam-assisted-gravity-drainage (SAGD) recovery process, the injection of high-pressure/high-temperature steam causes significant stress changes at the edge of the heated zone or steam chamber. These stress changes include shear dilation, which can both enhance the absolute permeability and result in horizontal and vertical formation displacements. The importance of considering geomechanical effects in thermal-recovery processes has been extensively discussed in the literature, but the prediction and surveillance of the resulting effects, such as the impact on production enhancement and reservoir displacement, have in many cases been neglected. Furthermore, issues related to these geomechanical effects on thermal production have been the subject of considerable debate in the industry with no conclusive, meaningful assessments of the effect on reservoir deliverability and production, or of the associated risks that such geomechanical effects have on wellbore and caprock integrity.
This study will focus on identification of the main findings from an extensive monitoring program conducted on the original SAGD pilot project conducted at the Underground Test Facility (UTF) in the late 1980s and a seismic program conducted during the last several years by an SAGD operator at a commercial thermal-recovery project. The measured displacements and identified dilation shear zones in these applications were compared with a Mohr-Coulomb (MC) dilative model. This paper illustrates some of the pros and cons of using such analytical models through comparison of the results based on field evidence of the dilation and shearing effects, and how these mechanisms affect both reservoir productivity (revenue) and wellbore and caprock integrity. Although the discussion on the geomechanical effects in thermal-recovery processes will no doubt continue, this study will provide field-supported results to illustrate both beneficial and potentially challenging impacts that these geomechanical effects can have in a thermal-recovery project.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||25|
Aherne, A. L. and Birrell, G. E. 2002. Observations Relating to Non-Condensable Gasses in a Vapour Chamber: Phase B of the Dover Project. Presented at the International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and International Horizontal Well Technology Conference, Calgary, 4–7 November. SPE-79023-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/79023-MS.
Azad, A. and Chalaturnyk, R. J. 2010. A Mathematical Improvement to SAGD Using Geomechanical Modelling. J Can Pet Technol 49: (10): 53–64. SPE-141303-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/141303-PA.
Butler, R. M. 1985. A New Appraoch to the Modeling of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Can Pet Technol 24 (3): 42–51. PETSOC-85-03-01. https://doi.org/10.2118/85-03-01.
Butler, R. M. 1991. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Butler, R. M. 1994. Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Concept, Development, Performance, and Future. J Can Pet Technol 33 (2): 44–50. PETSOC-94-02-05. https://doi.org/10.2118/94-02-05.
Butler, R. M. and Stephens, D. J. 1981. The Gravity Drainage of Steam-Heated Heavy Oil to Parallel Horizontal Wells. J Can Pet Technol 20 (2): 90–96. PETSOC-81-02-07. https://doi.org/10.2118/81-02-07.
Chalaturnyk, R. 1996. Geomechanics of the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage Process in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. PhD thesis, University of Alberta.
Collins, P. M. 1994. Design of the Monitoring Program for AOSTRA’s Underground Test Facility, Phase B Pilot. J Can Pet Technol 33 (3): 46–53. PETSOC-94-03-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/94-03-06.
Collins, P. M. 2007a. Geomechanical Effects on the SAGD Process. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (4): 367–375. SPE-97905-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/97905-PA.
Collins, P. M. 2007b. The False Lucre of Low-Pressure SAGD. J Can Pet Technol 46 (1): 20–27. PETSOC-07-01-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/07-01-02.
Dusseault, M. B. and Collins, P. M. 2010. Geomechanics Effects in Thermal Processes for Heavy-Oil Exploitation, Chap. 24. In Heavy Oils: Reservoir Characterization and Production Monitoring, ed. S. Chopra, L. R. Lines, D. R. Schmitt, and M. L. Batzle. Geophysical Developments Series: Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Irani, M. and Gates, I. 2013. Modifications to Butler Theory for Geomechanical Effects at the Edge of SAGD Steam Chamber. Part I: Drained Condition. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference, Calgary, 11–13 June. SPE-165457-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165457-MS.
Irani, M. and Ghannadi, S. 2013. Understanding the Heat-Transfer Mechanism in the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage (SAGD) Process and Comparing the Conduction and Convection Flux in Bitumen Reservoirs. SPE J. 18 (1): 134–145. SPE-163079-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/163079-PA.
Irani, M. and Gates, I. 2016. Drained/Undrained-Zones Boundary in Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Process. SPE J. 21 (5): 1721–1742. SPE-174417-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174417-PA.
Li, P. and Chalaturnyk, R. 2003. Discussion of “SAGD and Geomechanics.” J CanPet Technol 42 (9): 37–39. PETSOC-03-09. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-09.
Li, P., Chan, M., and Froehlich, W. 2009. Steam Injection Pressure and the SAGD Ramp-Up Process. J Can Pet Technol 48 (1): 36–41. PETSOC-09-01-36. https://doi.org/10.2118/09-01-36.
Onaisi, A. 2007. Geo-Mechanical Insights Into the May 18th 2006 Joslyn Steam Release, Summary of Investigation Into the Joslyn May 18th 2006 Steam Release.
Reis, J. C. 1992. A Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Model for Tar Sands: Linear Geometry. J Can Pet Technol 31: (10): 14–20. PETSOC-92-10-01. https://doi.org/10.2118/92-10-01.
Schanz, T. and Vermeer, P. A. 1996. Angles of Friction and Dilatancy of Sand. Geotechnique 46 (1): 145–151. https://doi.org/10.1680/geot.19188.8.131.52.
Taylor, G. I. 1938. Plastic Strain in Metals. Journal of the Institute of Metals 62: 307–324.
Touhidi-Baghini, A. 1998. Absolute Permeability of McMurray Formation Oil Sands at Low Confining Stresses. PhD thesis, University of Alberta.
Vermeer, P. A. de Borst, R. 1984. Non-Associated Plasticity for Soils, Concrete, and Rock. HERON 29 (3): 1–64.