Hydraulic-Fracture-Height Growth Under the Combined Influence of Stress Barriers and Natural Fractures
- Jixiang Huang (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Joseph P. Morris (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Pengcheng Fu (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Randolph R. Settgast (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Christopher S. Sherman (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Frederick J. Ryerson (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 302 - 318
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Stress Barrier, Hydraulic fracturing, Fracture Intersection, Natural Fracture, Fracture Height
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 180 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
A fully coupled finite-element/finite-volume code is used to model 3D hydraulically driven fractures under the influence of strong vertical variations in closure stress interacting with natural fractures. Previously unknown 3D interaction mechanisms on fracture-height growth are revealed. Slipping of a natural fracture, triggered by elevated fluid pressure from an intersecting hydraulic fracture, can induce both increases and decreases of normal stress in the minimum-horizontal-stress direction, toward the center and tip of the natural fracture, respectively. Consequently, natural fractures are expected to be able to both encourage and inhibit the progress of hydraulic fractures propagating through stress barriers, depending on the relative locations between the intersecting fractures. Once the hydraulic fracture propagates above the stress barrier through the weakened segment near a favorably located natural fracture, a configuration consisting of two opposing fractures cuts the stress barrier from above and below. The fluid pressure required to break the stress barrier under such opposing-fracture configurations is substantially lower than that required by a fracture penetrating the same barrier from one side. Sensitivity studies of geologic conditions and operational parameters have also been performed to explore the feasibility of controlled fracture height. The interactions between hydraulic fractures, natural fractures, and geologic factors such as stress barriers in three dimensions are shown to be much more complex than in two dimensions. Although it is impossible to exhaust all the possible configurations, the ability of a 3D, fully coupled numerical model to naturally capture these processes is well-demonstrated.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Bahorich, B., Olson J., and Holder, J. 2012. Examining the Effect of Cemented Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Hydrostone Block Experiments. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-160197-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/160197-MS.
Bandis, S. C., Lumsden, A. C., and Barton, N. R. 1983. Fundamentals of Rock Joint Deformation. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 20 (6): 249–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(83)90595-8.
Banks-Sills, L. 1991. Application of the Finite Element Method to Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics. Appl. Mech. Rev. 44 (10): 447–461. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3119488.
Barton, N., Bandis, S., and Bakhtar, K. 1986. Strength, Deformation and Conductivity Coupling of Rock Joints. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 22 (3): 121–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(85)93227-9.
Belytschko, T., Ong, J. S.-J., Liu, W. K. et al. 1984. Hourglass Control in Linear and Nonlinear Problems. Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng. 43 (3): 251–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-7825(84)90067-7.
Carlson, E. S. and Mercer, J. C. 1991. Devonian Shale Gas Production: Mechanisms and Simple Models. J Pet Technol 43 (4): 476–482. SPE-19311-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19311-PA.
Chen, Z., Jeffrey, R. G., Zhang, X. et al. 2017. Finite-Element Simulation of a Hydraulic Fracture Interacting With a Natural Fracture. SPE J. 22 (1): 219–234. SPE-176970-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/176970-PA.
Chuprakov, D., Melchaeva, O., and Prioul, R. 2014. Injection-Sensitive Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracture Interaction With Discontinuities. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 47 (5): 1625–1640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-014-0596-7.
Cook, N. G. W. 1992. Natural Joints in Rock: Mechanical, Hydraulic and Seismic Behaviour and Properties Under Normal Stress. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 29 (3): 198–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(92)93656-5.
Dahi Taleghani, A. and Olson, J. E. 2013. How Natural Fractures Could Affect Hydraulic-Fracture Geometry. SPE J. 19 (1): 161–171. SPE-167608-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167608-PA.
Eaton, B. A. 1969. Fracture Gradient Prediction and Its Application in Oilfield Operations. J Pet Technol 21 (10): 1353–1360. SPE-2163-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2163-PA.
Engelder, T. 1993. Stress Regimes in the Lithosphere. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Engelder, T., Lash, G. G., and Uzcátegui, R. S. 2009. Joint Sets That Enhance Production From Middle and Upper Devonian Gas Shales of the Appalachian Basin. AAPG Bull. 93 (7): 857–889. https://doi.org/10.1306/03230908032.
Fu, P., Cruz, L., Moos, D. et al. 2015. Numerical Investigation of a Hydraulic Fracture Bypassing a Natural Fracture in 3D. Presented at the 49th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 28 June–1 July. ARMA-2015-671.
Fu, P., Johnson, S. M., and Carrigan, C. R. 2013. An Explicitly Coupled Hydro-Geomechanical Model for Simulating Hydraulic Fracturing in Arbitrary Discrete Fracture Networks. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Met. 37 (14): 2278–2300. https://doi.org/10.1002/nag.2135.
Fu, W., Ames, B., Bunger, A. et al. 2016. Impact of Partially Cemented and Non-Persistent Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 49 (11): 4519–4526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-016-1103-0.
Gale, J. F. W., Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E. et al. 2014. Natural Fractures in Shale: A Review and New Observations. AAPG Bull. 98 (11): 2165–2216. https://doi.org/10.1306/08121413151.
Gu, H., Weng, X., Lund., J. B. et al. 2012. Hydraulic Fracture Crossing Natural Fracture at Nonorthogonal Angles: A Criterion and Its Validation. SPE Prod & Oper 27 (1): 20–26. SPE-139984-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/139984-PA.
Guo, B., Fu. P., Hao, Y. et al. 2016. Thermal Drawdown-Induced Flow Channeling in a Single Fracture in EGS. Geothermics 61 (May): 46–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.01.004.
Guo, J., Zhao, X., Zhu, H. et al. 2015. Numerical Simulation of Interaction of Hydraulic Fracture and Natural Fracture Based on the Cohesive Zone Finite Element Method. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 25 (July): 180–188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2015.05.008.
Izadi, G., Gaither, M., Cruz, L. et al. 2015. Fully 3D Hydraulic Fracturing Model: Optimizing Sequence Fracture Stimulation in Horizontal Wells. Presented at the 49th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 28 June–1 July. ARMA-2015-119.
Jeffrey, R. G. and Bunger, A. 2009. A Detailed Comparison of Experimental and Numerical Data on Hydraulic Fracture Height Growth Through Stress Contrasts. SPE J. 14 (3): 413–422. SPE-106030-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/106030-PA.
Jeffrey, R. G. and Settari, A. 1995. A Comparison of Hydraulic Fracture Field Experiments, Including Mineback Geometry Data, With Numerical Fracture Model Simulations. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 22–25 October. SPE-30508-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/30508-MS.
Krueger, R. 2004. Virtual Crack Closure Technique: History, Approach, and Applications. Appl. Mech. Rev. 57 (2): 109–143. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1595677.
McClure, M. W. and Horne, R. N. 2013. Discrete Fracture Network Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation: Coupling Flow and Geomechanics. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Naceur, K. B. and Touboul, E. 1990. Mechanisms Controlling Fracture-Height Growth in Layered Media. SPE Res Eng 5 (2): 142–150. SPE-16433-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/16433-PA.
Nolte, K. G. and Smith, M. G. 1981. Interpretation of Fracturing Pressures. J Pet Technol 33 (9): 1767–1775. SPE-8297-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8297-PA.
Pollard, D. D. and Aydin, A. 1984. Propagation and Linkage of Oceanic Ridge Segments. J. Geophys. Res. 89 (B12): 10017–10028. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB089iB12p10017.
Potluri, N., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. 2005. The Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Sheveningen, The Netherlands, 25–27 May. SPE-94568-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/94568-MS.
Raju, I. S. 1987. Calculation of Strain-Energy-Release Rates With Higher Order and Singular Finite Elements. Eng. Fract. Mech. 28 (3): 251–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-7944(87)90220-7.
Renshaw, C. E. and Pollard, D. D. 1995. An Experimentally Verified Criterion for Propagation Across Unbounded Frictional Interfaces in Brittle, Linear Elastic Materials. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 32 (3): 237–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)00037-4.
Sesetty, V. and Ghassemi, A. 2017. Complex Fracture Network Model for Stimulation of Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the 51st US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 25–28 June. ARMA-2017-0762.
Settgast, R. R., Fu, P., Walsh, S. D. C. et al. 2017. A Fully Coupled Method for Massively Parallel Simulation of Hydraulically Driven Fractures in 3-Dimensions. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Met. 41 (5): 627–653. https://doi.org/10.1002/nag.2557.
Settgast, R. R., Johnson, S. M., Fu, P. et al. 2014. Simulation of Hydraulic Fracture Networks in Three Dimensions Utilizing Massively Parallel Computing Resources. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. URTEC-1923299-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1923299.
Sherman, C. S., Aarons, L. R., Morris, J. P. et al. 2015. Finite Element Modeling of Curving Hydraulic Fractures and Near-Wellbore Hydraulic Fracture Complexity. Presented at the 49th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 28 June–1 July. ARMA-2015-530.
Simonson, E. R., Abou-Sayed, A. S., and Clifton, R. J. 1978. Containment of Massive Hydraulic Fractures. SPE J. 18 (1): 27–32. SPE-6089-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/6089-PA.
Tada, H., Paris, P., and Irwin, G. 2000. The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, third edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.
Warpinski, N. R. and Teufel, L. W. 1987. Influence of Geologic Discontinuities on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. J Pet Technol 39 (2): 209–220. SPE-13224-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13224-PA.
Warpinski, N. R., Branagan, P. T., Peterson, R. E. et al. 1998. An Interpretation of M-Site Hydraulic Fracture Diagnostic Results. Presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Regional/Low-Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, 5–8 April. SPE-39950-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39950-MS.
Warpinski, N. R., Clark, J. A., Schmidt, R. A. et al. 1982a. Laboratory Investigation on the Effect of In-Situ Stresses on Hydraulic Fracture Containment. SPE J. 22 (3): 333–340. SPE-9834-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/9834-PA.
Warpinski, N. R., Schmidt, R. A., and Northrop, D. A. 1982b. In-Situ Stresses: The Predominant Influence on Hydraulic Fracture Containment. J Pet Technol 34 (3): 653–664. SPE-8932-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8932-PA.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C.-E. et al. 2011. Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracture-Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (4): 368–380. SPE-140253-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140253-PA.
Wu, K. and Olson, J. E. 2016. Numerical Investigation of Complex Hydraulic-Fracture Development in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 31 (4): 300–309. SPE-173326-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173326-PA.
Zhang, F., Dontsov, E., and Mack, M. 2017. Fully Coupled Simulation of a Hydraulic Fracture Interacting With Natural Fractures With a Hybrid Discrete-Continuum Method. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Met. 41 (13): 1430–1452. https://doi.org/10.1002/nag.2682.
Zhang, X. and Jeffrey, R. G. 2008. Reinitiation or Termination of Fluid-Driven Fractures at Frictional Bedding Interfaces. J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea. 113 (B8): 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JB005327.
Zhou, J., Huang, H., and Deo, M. 2015. Modeling the Interaction Between Hydraulic and Natural Fractures Using Dual-Lattice Discrete Element Method. Presented at the 49th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 28 June–1 July. ARMA-2015-507.
Zhou, J., Huang, H., McLennan, J. et al. 2017. A Dual-Lattice Discrete Element Model To Understand Hydraulic Fracturing in a Naturally Fractured System. Hydraul. Fract. J. 4 (2): 66–82.
Zoback, M. D., Kohli, A., Das, I. et al. 2012. The Importance of Slow Slip on Faults During Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation of Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Americas Unconventional Resources Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 5–7 June. SPE-155476-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155476-MS.