Computed-Tomography Measurements of Water Block in Low-Permeability Rocks: Scaling and Remedying Production Impairment
- Tianbo Liang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing and University of Texas at Austin) | Xiao Luo (University of Texas at Austin) | Quoc Nguyen (University of Texas at Austin) | David A. DiCarlo (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 762 - 771
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Capillarity, Low-Permeability Rocks, Water Block, Shut In
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 392 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Fracturing-fluid invasion into the rock matrix can generate water block that potentially reduces hydrocarbon production, especially in low-permeability reservoirs. Here, we experimentally investigate the dynamics of water block under different flow scenarios (i.e., without shut-ins) and rock permeabilities through multiple coreflood experiments. A computed-tomography (CT) scanner is used to obtain the saturation profile within the core throughout the experiment, while the overall hydrocarbon productivity is measured from the overall pressure drop across the core.
On the basis of the saturation and pressure measurements, we interpret the potential physical mechanism regarding the productivity reduction from water block and its self-mitigation facilitated by the capillary imbibition. Our interpretation also matches the observed scaling with rock permeability and the optimal shut-in time.
|File Size||903 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Abrams, A. and Vinegar, H. J. 1985. Impairment Mechanisms in Vicksburg Tight Gas Sands. Presented at the SPE/DOE Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, 19–22 March. SPE-13883-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/13883-MS.
Almulhim, A., Alharthy, N., Tutuncu, A. N. et al. 2014. Impact of Imbibition Mechanism on Flowback Behavior: A Numerical Study. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 10–13 November. SPE-171799-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171799-MS.
Alramahi, B. and Sundberg, M. I. 2012. Proppant Embedment and Conductivity of Hydraulic Fractures in Shales. Presented at the 46th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, 24–27 June. ARMA-2012-291.
Asadi, M., Woodroof, R. A., and Himes, R. E. 2008. Comparative Study of Flowback Analysis Using Polymer Concentrations and Fracturing-Fluid Tracer Methods: A Field Study. SPE Prod & Oper 23 (2): 147–157. SPE-101614-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/101614-PA.
Austad, T. and Milter, J. 1997. Spontaneous Imbibition of Water Into Low-Permeable Chalk at Different Wettabilities Using Surfactants. Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 18–21 February. SPE-37236-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/37236-MS.
Bazin, B., Peysson, Y., Lamy, F. et al. 2009. In Situ Water Blocking Measurements and Interpretation Related to Fracturing Operations in Tight Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the 8th European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 27–29 May. SPE-121812-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/121812-MS.
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C. et al. 2014. Imbibition and Water Blockage in Unconventional Reservoirs: Well-Management Implications During Flowback and Early Production. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (4): 497–506. SPE-167698-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Bostrom, N., Chertov, M., Pagels, M. et al. 2014. The Time-Dependent Permeability Damage Caused by Fracture Fluid. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–28 February. SPE-168140-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168140-MS.
Caenn, R., Darley, H. C. H., and Gray, G. R. 2011. Chapter 4—Clay Mineralogy and the Colloid Chemistry of Drilling Fluids. In Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids, sixth edition, 137–177. Boston: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Chakraborty, N. and, Karpyn, Z. T. 2015. Gas Permeability Evolution With Soaking Time in Ultra Tight Shales. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-178740-STU. https://doi.org/10.2118/178740-STU.
Cheng, Y. 2012. Impact of Water Dynamics in Fractures on the Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Gas-Shale Reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 51 (2): 143–151. SPE-127863-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/127863-PA.
Crafton, J. W. and Noe, S. 2013. Factors Affecting Early Well Productivity in Six Shale Plays. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166101-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166101-MS.
Curtis, M. E., Ambrose, R. J., and Sondergeld, C. H. 2010. Structural Characterization of Gas Shales on the Micro- and Nano-Scales. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-137693-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/137693-MS.
Das, P., Achalpurkar, M., and Pal, O. 2014. Impact of Formation Softening and Rock Mechanical Properties on Selection of Shale Stimulation Fluid: Laboratory Evaluation. Presented at the SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 25–27 February. SPE-167787-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167787-MS.
DOE. 2009. Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer. US Department of Energy.
Dutta, R., Lee, C.-H., Odumabo, S. et al. 2014. Experimental Investigation of Fracturing-Fluid Migration Caused by Spontaneous Imbibition in Fractured Low-Permeability Sands. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (1): 74–81. SPE-154939-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/154939-PA.
Engelder, T., Cathles, L. M., and Bryndzia, L. T. 2014. The Fate of Residual Treatment Water in Gas Shale. J. Unconv. Oil Gas Resour. 7: 33–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juogr.2014.03.002.
Far, M. E., Buller, D., Quirein, J. et al. 2015. A New Integrated Data Analysis Algorithm and Workflow for Optimizing Horizontal Well Completion in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the SPWLA 56th Annual Logging Symposium, Long Beach, California, 18–22 July. SPWLA-2015-CCCC.
Ferrill, D. A., McGinnis, R. N., Morris, A. P. et al. 2014. Control of Mechanical Stratigraphy on Bed-Restricted Jointing and Normal Faulting: Eagle Ford Formation, South-Central Texas. AAPG Bull. 98: 2477–2506. https://doi.org/10.1306/08191414053.
Gupta, N., Rai, C. S., and Sondergeld, C. H. 2013. Petrophysical Characterization of the Woodford Shale. Petrophysics 54: 368–382. SPWLA-2013-v54n4-A4.
Holditch, S. A. 1979. Factors Affecting Water Blocking and Gas Flow From Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells. J Pet Technol 31 (12): 1515–1524. SPE-7561-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/7561-PA.
King, G. E. 2012. Hydraulic Fracturing 101: What Every Representative, Environmentalist, Regulator, Reporter, Investor, University Researcher, Neighbor and Engineer Should Know About Estimating Frac Risk and Improving Frac Performance in Unconventional Gas and Oil Wells. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-152596-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/152596-MS.
King, G. 2015. Fracturing Flowback: Controls, Analysis & Benefits. SPE GCS Westside Study Group, 15 January 2015. Presentations from the SPE Workshop on fracturing flowback, San Antonio, 6–7 November 2013.
Lan, Q., Ghanbari, E., Dehghanpour, H. et al. 2014. Water Loss vs. Soaking Time: Spontaneous Imbibition in Tight Rocks. Presented at the SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 25–27 February. SPE-167713-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167713-MS.
Le, D. H., Hoang, H. N., and Mahadevan, J. 2012. Gas Recovery From Tight Sands: Impact of Capillarity. SPE J. 17 (4): 981–991. SPE-119585-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/119585-PA.
Leverett,M. C. 1941. Capillary Behavior in Porous Solids. Transactions of the AIME 142 (1): 152–169. SPE-941152-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/941152-G.
Liang, T., Achour, S. H., Longoria, R. A. et al. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Surfactant Additives To Reduce Water Blocks After Hydraulic Fracturing for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179601-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179601-MS.
Liang, T., Longoria, R. A., Lu, J. et al. 2017. Enhancing Hydrocarbon Permeability After Hydraulic Fracturing: Laboratory Evaluations of Shut-Ins and Surfactant Additives. SPE J. 22 (4): 1011–1023. SPE-175101-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/175101-PA.
Liang, T., Longoria, R. A., Lu, J. et al. 2015. The Applicability of Surfactants on Enhancing the Productivity in Tight Formations. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 20–22 July. URTEC-2154284-MS. https://doi.org/10.10.15530/URTEC-2015-2154284.
Longoria, R. A., Liang, T., Huynh, U. T. et al. 2017. Water Blocks in Tight Formations: The Role of Matrix/Fracture Interaction in Hydrocarbon-Permeability Reduction and Its Implications in the Use of Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques. SPE J. 22 (5): 1393–1401. SPE-185962-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/185962-PA.
Longoria, R. A., Liang, T., Nguyen, Q. P. et al. 2015. When Less Flowback Is More: A Mechanism of Permeability Damage and Its Implications on the Application of EOR Techniques. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 20–22 July. URTEC-2154266-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2154266.
Loucks, R. G., Reed, R. M., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2012. Spectrum of Pore Types and Networks in Mudrocks and a Descriptive Classification for Matrix-Related Mudrock Pores. AAPG Bull. 96 (6): 1071–1098. https://doi.org/10.1306/08171111061.
Madsen, F. T. and Müller-Vonmoos, M. 1989. The Swelling Behaviour of Clays. Appl. Clay Sci. 4 (2): 143–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-1317(89)90005-7.
Mahadevan, J. and Sharma, M. M. 2005. Factors Affecting Cleanup of Water Blocks: A Laboratory Investigation. SPE J. 10 (3): 238–246. SPE-84216-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84216-PA.
Mahadevan, J., Sharma, M. M., and Yortsos, Y. C. 2007. Capillary Wicking in Gas Wells. SPE J. 12 (4): 429–437. SPE-103229-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/103229-PA.
Mattax, C. C. and Kyte, J. R. 1962. Imbibition Oil Recovery From Fractured, Water-Drive Reservoir. SPE J. 2 (2): 177–184. SPE-187-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/187-PA.
Nelson, P. H. 2009. Pore-Throat Sizes in Sandstones, Tight Sandstones, and Shales. AAPG Bull. 93 (3): 329–340. https://doi.org/10.1306/10240808059.
Noe, S. and Crafton, J. 2013. Impact of Delays and Shut-Ins on Well Productivity. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 20–22 August. SPE-165705-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165705-MS.
Odumabo, S. M., Karpyn, Z. T., and Ayala H., L. F. 2014. Investigation of Gas Flow Hindrance Due To Fracturing Fluid Leakoff in Low Permeability Sandstones. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 17 (March): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2013.12.002.
Pagels, M., Willberg, D. M., Edelman, E. et al. 2013. Quantifying Fracturing Fluid Damage on Reservoir Rock To Optimize Production. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 12–14 August. URTEC-1578948-MS.
Paktinat, J., Pinkhouse, J. A., Stoner,W. P. et al. 2005. Case Histories: Post-Frac Fluid Recovery Improvements of Appalachian Basin Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Eastern RegionalMeeting,Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, 14–16 September. SPE-97365-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/97365-MS.
Parekh, B. and Sharma, M. M. 2004. Cleanup of Water Blocks in Depleted Low-Permeability Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-89837-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/89837-MS.
Penny, G. and Pursley, J. 2007. Field Studies of Drilling and Completion Fluids To Minimize Damage and Enhance Gas Production in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 30 May–1 June. SPE-107844-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/107844-MS.
Simpson, M. D., Patterson, R., and Wu, K. 2016. Study of Stress Shadow Effects in Eagle Ford Shale: Insight From Field Data Analysis. Presented at the 50th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Houston, 26–29 June. ARMA-16-190.
Taylor, R. S., Fyten, G., Romanson, R. et al. 2010. Montney Fracturing-Fluid Considerations. J Can Pet Technol 49 (12): 28–36. SPE-143113-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/143113-PA.
Van Genuchten, M. T. 1980. A Closed-Form Equation for Predicting the Hydraulic Conductivity of Unsaturated Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44 (5): 892–898. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1980.03615995004400050002x.
Wang, J., Liu, H., Yu, W. et al. 2016. Necessity of Porosity Correction Before Simulation and Re-understanding of the Effects of Gas Adsorption on Production in Shale Gas Reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 139 (March): 162–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.12.022.
Wasylishen, R. and Fulton, S. 2012. Reuse of Flowback and Produced Water for Hydraulic Fracturing in Tight Oil. Final Report prepared for the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada (28 June 2012).
Yaich, E., Williams, S., Bowser, A. et al. 2015. A Case Study: The Impact of Soaking on Well Performance in the Marcellus. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 20–22 July. SPE-178614-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/178614-MS.
Yan, Q., Lemanski, C., Karpyn, Z. T. et al. 2015. Experimental Investigation of Shale Gas Production Impairment Due To Fracturing Fluid Migration During Shut-In Time. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 24 (May): 99–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2015.03.017.
Yu, W. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2014. Optimization of Well Spacing for Bakken Tight Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. URTEC-1922108-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1922108.
Zelenev, A. and Ellena, L. 2009. Microemulsion Technology for Improved Fluid Recovery and Enhanced Core Permeability to Gas. Presented at the 8th European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 27–29 May. SPE-122109-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/122109-MS.
Zhang, X., Morrow, N. R., and Ma, S. 1996. Experimental Verification of a Modified Scaling Group for Spontaneous Imbibition. SPE Res Eng 11 (4): 280–285. SPE-30762-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/30762-PA.
Zuo, L., Yu, W., and Wu, K. 2016. A Fractional Decline Curve Analysis Model for Shale Gas Reservoirs. Int. J. Coal Geol. 163 (June): 140–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2016.07.006.