Construction of a 3D Geomechanical Model for Development of a Shale Gas Reservoir in the Sichuan Basin
- Jun Xie (PetroChina) | Kaibin Qiu (Schlumberger) | Bing Zhong (PetroChina) | Yuanwei Pan (Schlumberger) | Xuewen Shi (PetroChina) | Lizhi Wang (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 275 - 297
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Sichuan Basin, 3D Geomechanics, Shale Gas
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 344 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Currently, there is large-scale shale gas exploration and development in the Sichuan Basin, western China. Caused by high tectonic stress and presence of fracture systems at various scales in the lower Silurian Longmaxi reservoir formation, hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin has encountered many difficulties, such as placing sufficient proppant, poor-production performance for some wells, and ambiguity as to the factors controlling the production of reservoirs. It has been recognized that lack of geomechanical understanding of the shale gas reservoirs is a major obstacle to effectively addressing these difficulties.
A 3D full-field geomechanics model was constructed for the Changning shale gas reservoir in the Sichuan Basin through integrating seismic, geological structure, log, and core data by following a newly formulated work flow. The 3D geomechanical model includes 3D anisotropic mechanical properties, 3D pore pressure, and the 3D in-situ stress field. Through leveraging measurements from an advanced sonic tool and core data, the anisotropy of the formation was captured at wellbores and propagated to 3D space guided by prestack seismic inversion data. The 3D pore-pressure prediction was conducted with seismic data, and calibrated against pressure measurements, mud-logging data, and flowback data. A discrete-fracture-network (DFN) model, which represents multiscale natural-fracture systems, was integrated into the 3D geomechanical model during stress modeling to reflect the disturbance on the in-situ stress field by the presence of the natural-fracture systems.
The 3D pore-pressure model was used to calculate more-reliable estimates of gas in place in the shale gas reservoir, and the geomechanical model was used to reveal the root cause of difficulties of proppant placement in this tectonically active and unevenly fractured shale gas reservoir.
The paper presents the highlights and innovations in constructing the 3D geomechanical model for the shale gas reservoir, and explains how the 3D geomechanical model is used to address technical challenges encountered during drilling and completion. Also, it demonstrates that a reliable 3D geomechanical model, with proper characterization of anisotropy, pore pressure, and natural fractures, provides a critical opportunity to improve the development in this shale gas reservoir.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||23|
Abousleiman, Y., Tran, M., Hoang, S. et al. 2007. Geomechanics Field and Laboratory Characterization of the Woodford Shale: The Next Gas Play. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA, 11–14 November. SPE-110120-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/110120-MS.
Alberty, M. W. and Fink, K. 2014. The Use of Connection and Total Gases Quantitatively in the Assessment of Shale Pore Pressure. SPE Drill & Compl 29 (2): 208–214. SPE-166188-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/166188-PA.
Al-Marzouqi, M. L., Budebes, S., Sultan, E. et al. 2010. Resolving Carbonate Complexity. Oilfield Review 22 (2): 40–55.
Barton, N. R. 1972. A Model Study of Rock-Joint Deformation. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 9: 579–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(72)90010-1.
Barton, C. A., Castillo, D. A., Moos, D. et al. 1998. Characterizing the Full Stress Tensor Based on Observations of Drilling-Induced Wellbore Failures in Vertical and Inclined Boreholes Leading to Improved Wellbore Stability and Permeability Prediction. APPEA Journal 38 (1): 466–487. https://doi.org/10.1071/Aj97023.
Bowers, G. L. 1995. Pore-Pressure Estimation From Velocity Data: Accounting for Overpressure Mechanisms Besides Undercompaction. SPE Drill & Compl 10 (2): 89–95. SPE-27488-PA. https://10.2118/27488-PA.
Chen, M. Z., Qian, B., Ou, Z. L. et al. 2012. Exploration and Practice of Volume Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoir of Sichuan Basin, China. Presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Conference & Exhibition, Tianjin, China, 9–11 July. SPE-155598-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/155598-MS.
Chen, Z., Liang, X., Zhang, J. et al. 2016. Genesis Analysis of Shale Reservoir Overpressure of Longmaxi Formation in Zhaotong Demonstration Area, Dianqianbei Depression. Natural Gas Geoscience 27 (3): 442–448 (in Chinese).
Choi, M. K., Pyrak-Nolte, L. J. and Bobet, A. 2013. Relationship Between Shear and Normal Stiffness for a Fracture Subjected to Mixed-Mode Loading. Presented at the 47th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 23–26 June. ARMA-13-405.
Daley, P. F. and Hron, F. 1977. Reflection and Transmission Coefficients for Transversely Isotropic Media. Bull., Seismological Society of America 67 (3): 661–675.
Deng, J., Wang, H., Zhou, H. et al. 2015. Microtexture, Seismic Rock Physical Properties and Modeling of Longmaxi Formation Shale. Chinese J. Geophys. 58 (6): 2123–2136 (in Chinese). https://doi.org/10.6038/cjg20150626.
Dong, D., Gao, S., Huang, J. et al. 2015. Discussion on the Exploration & Development Prospect of Shale Gas in the Sichuan Basin. Natural Gas Industry B 2 (1): 9–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ngib.2015.02.002.
Dong, D., Wang, Y., Li, X. et al. 2016. Breakthrough and Prospect of Shale Gas Exploration and Development in China. Natural Gas Industry B 3 (1): 12–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ngib.2016.02.002.
Downie, R. C., Kronenberger, E., and Maxwell, S. C. 2010. Using Microseismic Source Parameters to Evaluate the Influence of Faults on Fracture Treatments—A Geophysical Approach to Interpretation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-134772-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/134772-MS.
Downie, R. C., Xu, J., Grant, D. et al. 2013. Microseismic Parameters Help to Calibrate Complex Hydraulic Fracture Models. World Oil 3: 13–16.
Eaton, B. A. 1975. The Equation for Geopressure Prediction From Well Logs. J Pet Technol 24 (8): 929–934. SPE-3719-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3719-PA.
Fertl, W. H. 1976. Abnormal Formation Pressure, Implication to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Reservoirs. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Foster, J. B. and Whalen, J. E. 1966. Estimation of Formation Pressure From Electrical Surveys—Offshore Louisiana. J Pet Technol 18 (2): 165–171. SPE-1200-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1200-PA.
Gale, J. F. W. 2014. Natural Fracture Patterns and Attributes Across a Range of Scales. AAPG Search and Discovery Article #41487. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/pdfz/documents/2014/41486gale/ndx_gale.pdf.html (accessed 8 July 2017).
Hackbarth, C. J., Soo, D., and Singh, N. 2011. Sichuan Basin Shale Gas, China: Exploring the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 7–9 February. IPTC-14487-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-14487-MS.
Haddad, M. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2017. Mechanistic Simulation of Multi-Stage, Multi-Wellbore Hydraulic Fracturing in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the 51st US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 25–28 June. ARMA-17-0593.
Haddad, M., Du, J., and Vidal-Gilbert, S. 2017. Integration of Dynamic Microseismic Data With a True 3D Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracture Propagation in the Vaca Muerta Shale. SPE J. 22 (6): 1714–1738. SPE-179164-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179164-PA.
Hoesni, H. M. 2004. Origins of Overpressure in the Malay Basin and Its Influence on Petroleum Systems. Durham thesis, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/1755.
Hornby, B. E., Howie, J. M., and Ince, D. W. 2003, Anisotropy Correction for Deviated-Well Sonic Logs—Application to Seismic Well Tie. Geophysics 68 (2): 464–471. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1567212.
Horne, S. A. and Walsh, J. 2015. Multi-Well Anisotropy Inversion. US Patent No. 2015/0,012,251 A1.
Jaeger, J. C., Cook, N. G. W., and Zimmerman, R. W. 2007. Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, fourth edition, 35–36. Blackwell Publishing.
Jocker, J., Wielemaker, E., Prioul, R. et al. 2014. Method to Characterize Heterogeneous Anisotropic Media. US Patent No. 2014/0,365,420 A1.
Johnston, J. E. and Christensen, N. I. 1995. Seismic Anisotropy of Shales. Journal of Geophysical Research B 100: 5991–6003. https://doi.org/10.1029/95jb00031.
Jones, R. S., Pownall, B., and Franke, J. 2014. Estimating Reservoir Pressure From Early Flowback Data. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. URTEC-1934785-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1934785.
Jun, Q., Xian, C., Liang, X. et al. 2017. Characterizing and Modeling Multiscale Natural Fractures in the Ordovician-Silurian Wufeng-Longmaxi Shale Formation in South Sichuan Basin. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Austin, Texas, USA, 24–26 July. URTeC-2691208-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTeC-2017-2691208.
Lee, P. M. 2012. Bayesian Statistics: An Introduction, fourth edition. Wiley.
Li, Q., Chen, M., Jin, Y. et al. 2013. Rock Mechanical Properties of Shale Gas Reservoir and Their Influences on Hydraulic Fracture. Presented at the International Petroleum Conference, Beijing, 26–28 March. IPTC-16580-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-16580-MS.
Li, X., Zhang, S., Li, W. et al. 2016. Productive Potential of Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian Shale Gas Plays in the Sichuan Basin. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 1–3 August. URTEC-2462004-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2016-2462004.
Liang, X., Xian, C., Shu, H. et al. 2016. Three-Dimensional Full-Field and Pad Geomechanics Modeling Assists Effective Shale Gas Field Development, Sichuan Basin, China. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 14–16 November. IPTC-18984-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-18984-MS.
Liu, S., Valvo, P. P., McKetta, S. et al. 2017. Microseismic Closure Window Characterizes Hydraulic-Fracture Geometry Better. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (2): 423–445. SPE-179116-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179116-PA.
Maerten, L., Gillespie, P., and Daniel, J.-M. 2006. Three-Dimensional Geomechanical Modeling for Constraint of Subseismic Fault Simulation. AAPG Bull. 90 (9): 1337–1358. https://doi.org/10.1306/03130605148.
Magara, K. 1978. Compaction and Fluid Migration, first edition, Vol. 9. Developments in Petroleum Science Series. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.
Maxwell, S. C., Cho, D., Pope, T. et al. 2011. Enhanced Reservoir Characterization Using Hydraulic Fracture Microseismicity. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24–26 January. SPE-140449-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/140449-MS.
Maxwell, S. C. and Cipolla, C. 2011. What Does Microseismic Tell Us About Hydraulic Fracture Deformation? Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146932-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146932-MS.
Morris, J. P., Jocker, J., and Prioul, R. 2017. Numerical Investigation of Alternative Fracture Stiffness Measures and Their Respective Scaling Behaviors. Geophysical Prospecting 65: 791–807. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2478.12441.
Nie, J. 2013. Weiyuan and Changning Shale Gas Horizontal Well Drilling Technology Study. MS thesis, Southwestern Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China (in Chinese, available from www.cnki.net).
Palmer, I. D., Moschovidis, Z. A., and Cameron, J. R. 2007. Modeling Shear Failure and Stimulation of the Barnett Shale After Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, College Station, Texas, USA, 29–31 January. SPE-106113-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106113-MS.
Pepper, R. and Bejarano, G. 2005. Advances in Seismic Fault Interpretation Automation. Search and Discovery Article #40169. http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/pdfz/documents/2005/pepper/images/pepper.pdf.html (accessed 7 July 2017).
Qiao, L., Zhou, C., and Gao, J. 2016. Research on Gas Drilling Technology in Changning Shale Gas Field. Drilling and Production Technology 38 (6) 15–17 (in Chinese).
Qiu, K., Cheng, N., Ke, X. et al. 2013. 3D Reservoir Geomechanics Workflow and Its Application to a Tight Gas Reservoir in Western China. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Beijing, 26–28 March. IPTC-17115-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17115-MS.
Randen, T., Pedersen, S. I., and Sonneland, L. 2001. Automatic Extraction of Fault Surfaces From Three-Dimensional Seismic Data. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2001, 551–554. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1816675.
Rassenfoss, S. 2015. What Do Fractures Look Like? A Picture Says a Lot, Even When It is Wrong. J Pet Technol 67 (5): 60–68. SPE-0515-0060-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/0515-0060-PA.
Raymer, D. G. and Leslie, H. D. 2011. Microseismic Network Design—Estimating Event Detection. Presented at the 73rd EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, Vienna, Austria, 23–26 May. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.20149027.
Riahi, A. and Damjanac, B. 2013. Numerical Study of the Interaction Between Injection and the Discrete Fracture Network in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs. Presented at the 47th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 23–26 June. ARMA-2013-333.
Ryder, R. T., Dudley, D. R., Rice, D. et al. 1994. Petroleum Geology of the Sichuan Basin/China Report on US Geological Survey and Chinese Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources Field Investigations and Meetings, October 1991. US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey, Open-File Report 94-426.
Schlumberger. 2010. VISAGE Technical Description. Bundled with VISAG installation kit. (https://www.software.slb.com/products/visage).
Schoenberg, M., Muir, F., and Sayers, C. 1996. Introducing Annie: A Simple Three-Parameter Anisotropic Velocity Model for Shales. Journal of Seismic Exploration 5: 35–49.
Silva, C. C., Marcolino, C. S., and Lima, F. D. 2005. Automatic Fault Extraction Using Ant Tracking Algorithm in the Marlim South Field, Campos Basin. Presented at the 9th International Congress of the Brazilian Geophysical Society, 11 September. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2005. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2148294.
Suarez-Rivera, R., Deenadayalu, C., and Yang, Y.-K. 2009. Unlocking the Unconventional Oil and Gas Reservoirs: The Effect of Laminated Heterogeneity in Wellbore Stability and Completion of Tight Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 4–7 May. OTC-20269-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/20269-MS.
Thiercelin, M. J. and Plumb, R. A. 1994. A Core-Based Prediction of Lithologic Stress Contrasts in East Texas Formations. SPE Form Eval 9 (4): 251–258. SPE-21847-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/21847-PA.
Thomsen, L. 1986. Weak Elastic Anisotropy. Geophysics 51: 1954–1966. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442051.
Vernik, L. and Liu, X. 1997. Velocity Anisotropy in Shales: A Petrophysical Study. Geophysics 62: 521–532. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1444162.
Walsh, J., Sinha, B., Plona, T. et al. 2007. Derivation of Anisotropy Parameters in a Shale Using Borehole Sonic Data. In SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 2007. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2792435.
Wang, Z. 2002. Seismic Anisotropy in Sedimentary Rocks: Part 2—Laboratory Data. Geophysics 67: 1423–1440. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1512743.
Wang, Y., Dong, D., Li, J. et al. 2012. Reservoir Characteristics of Shale Gas in Longmaxi Formation of the Lower Silurian, Southern Sichuan. Acta Petrolei Sinica 33 (4): 551–561 (in Chinese).
Warpinski, N. R., Wolhart, S. L., and Wright, C. A. 2004. Analysis and Prediction of Microseismicity Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing. SPE J. 9 (1): 24–33. SPE-87673-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/87673-PA.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C. et al. 2011. Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracture-Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (4): 368–380. SPE-140253-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140253-PA.
Zhang, F., Qiu, K., Yang, X. et al. 2015. Pinpoint the Interaction Mechanism Between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures in the KS Tight Gas Reservoir. Presented at the EUROPEC 2015, Madrid, Spain, 1–4 June. SPE-174384-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174384-MS.
Zhu, Z., Chi, S., and Toksoz, M. N. 2007. Sonic Logging in Deviated Boreholes Penetrating an Anisotropic Formation: Laboratory Study. Geophysics 72 (4): E125–E134. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2735801.