Case Study: 4D Coupled Reservoir/Geomechanics Simulation of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir
- Xiangtong Yang (PetroChina) | Yuanwei Pan (Schlumberger) | Wentong Fan (PetroChina) | Yongjie Huang (Schlumberger) | Yang Zhang (PetroChina) | Lizhi Wang (Schlumberger) | Lipeng Wang (Schlumberger) | Qi Teng (PetroChina) | Kaibin Qiu (Schlumberger) | Meng Zhao (Schlumberger) | Feng Shan (PetroChina)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,518 - 1,538
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Long–term Productivity, 4D Geomechanics, Tight Gas, HPHT, Natural Fracture
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 406 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The Keshen Reservoir is a naturally fractured, deep, tight sandstone gas reservoir under high tectonic stress. Because the reservoir matrix is very tight, the natural-fracture system is the main pathway for gas production. Meanwhile, stimulation is still required for most production wells to provide production rates that sufficiently compensate for the high cost of drilling and completing wells to access this deep reservoir. Large depletion (and related stress change) was expected during the course of the production of the field. The dynamic response of the reservoir and related risks, such as reduction of fracture conductivity, fault reactivation, and casing failure, would compromise the long-term productivity of the reservoir.
To quantify the dynamic response of the reservoir and related risks, a 4D reservoir/geomechanics simulation was conducted for Keshen Reservoir by following an integrated work flow. The work started from systematic laboratory fracture-conductivity tests performed with fractured cores to measure conductivity vs. confining stress for both natural fractures and hydraulic fractures (with proppant placed in the fractures of the core samples). Natural-fracture modeling was conducted to generate a discrete-fracture network (DFN) to delineate spatial distribution of the natural-fracture system. In addition, hydraulic-fracture modeling was conducted to delineate the geometry of the hydraulic-fracture system for the stimulated wells. Then, a 3D geomechanical model was constructed by integrating geological, petrophysical, and geomechanical data, and both the DFN and hydraulic-fracture system were incorporated into the 3D geomechanical model. A 4D reservoir/geomechanics simulation was conducted through coupling with a reservoir simulator to predict variations of stress and strain of rock matrix as well as natural fractures and hydraulic fractures during field production. At each study-well location, a near-wellbore model was extracted from the full-field model, and casing and cement were installed to evaluate well integrity during production.
The 4D reservoir/geomechanics simulation revealed that there would be a large reduction of conductivity for both natural fractures and hydraulic fractures, and some fractures with certain dip/dip azimuth will be reactivated during the course of field production. The induced-stress change will also compromise well integrity for those poorly cemented wellbores. The field-development plan must consider all these risks to ensure sustainable long-term production.
The paper presents a 4D coupled geomechanics/reservoir-simulation study applied to a high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) naturally fractured reservoir, which has rarely been published previously. The study adapted several new techniques to quantify the mechanical response of both natural fractures and hydraulic fractures, such as using laboratory tests to measure stress sensitivity of natural fractures, integrating DFN and hydraulic-fracture systems into 4D geomechanics simulation, and evaluating well integrity on both the reservoir scale and the near-wellbore scale.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||21|
Barton, C. A., Zoback, M. D., and Moos, D. 1995. Fluid Flow Along Potentially Active Faults in Crystalline Rock. Geology 23 (8): 683–686. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0683:ffapaf>2.3.co;2.
Barton, N. R. 1972. A Model Study of Rock-Joint Deformation. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 9 (5): 579–602. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(72)90010-1.
Berard, T., Desroches, J., Yang, Y. et al. 2015. High-Resolution 3D Structural Geomechanics Modeling for Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 3–6 February. SPE-173362-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173362-MS.
Chen, H.-Y., Teufel, L. W., and Lee, R. L. 1995. Coupled Fluid Flow and Geomechanics in Reservoir Study—I. Theory and Governing Equations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 22–25 October. SPE-30752-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/30752-MS.
Cipolla, C. L., Maxwell, S. C., and Mack, M. G. 2012. Engineering Guide to the Application of Microseismic Interpretations. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-152165-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/152165-MS.
Cipolla, C. L., Warpinski, N. R., and Mayerhofer, M. J. 2008. Hydraulic Fracture Complexity: Diagnosis, Remediation, and Exploitation. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 20–22 October. SPE-115771-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/115771-MS.
Cipolla, C., Weng, X., and Mack, M. 2011. Integrating Microseismic Mapping and Complex Fracture Modeling to Characterize Fracture Complexity. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 24–26 January. SPE-140185-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/140185-MS.
Correa, A. C. F., Newman, R. B., Naveira, V. P. et al. 2013. Integrated Modeling for 3D Geomechanics and Coupled Simulation of Fractured Carbonate Reservoir. Presented at OTC Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 29–31 October. OTC-24409-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/24409-MS.
Fan, L., Thompson, J. W., and Robinson, J. R. 2010. Understanding Gas Production Mechanism and Effectiveness of Well Stimulation in the Haynesville Shale Through Reservoir Simulation. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resource & International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-136696-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/136696-MS.
Fredd, C. N., McConnell, S. B., Boney, C. L. et al. 2001. Experimental Study of Fracture Conductivity for Water-Fracturing and Conventional Fracturing Applications. SPE J. 6 (3): 288–298. SPE-74138-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/74138-PA.
Fredrich, J. T., Argüello, J. G., Thorne, B. J. et al. 1996. Three-Dimensional Geomechanical Simulation of Reservoir Compaction and Implications for Well Failures in the Belridge Diatomite. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6–9 October. SPE-36698-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/36698-MS.
Fredrich, J. T., Deitrick, G. L., Argu¨ello, J. G. et al. 1998. Reservoir Compaction, Surface Subsidence, and Casing Damage: A Geomechanics Approach to Mitigation and Reservoir Management. Presented at SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering, Trondheim, Norway, 8–10 July. SPE-47284-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/47284-MS.
Gangopadhyay, A. K., Malayalam, A., Lucas, J. et al. 2013. Analysis and Integration of Near-Surface Array Microseismic Data From the Haynesville Shale. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 28–30 January. SPE-163969-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163969-MS.
Gu, H., Weng, X., Lund, J. B. et al. 2011. Hydraulic Fracture Crossing Natural Fracture at Non-Orthogonal Angles, A Criterion, Its Validation and Applications. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 24–26 January. SPE-139984-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/139984-MS.
Gutierrez, M. 1994. Fully Coupled Analysis of Reservoir Compaction and Subsidence. Presented at the European Petroleum Conference, London, 25–27 October. SPE-28900-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/28900-MS.
Gutierrez, M. and Lewis, R. W. 1998. The Role of Geomechanics in Reservoir Simulation. Presented at SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering, Trondheim, Norway, 8–10 July. SPE-47392-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/47392-MS.
Heffer, K. J., Koutsabeloulis, N. C., and Wong, S. K. 1994. Coupled Geomechanical, Thermal and Fluid Flow Modelling as an Aid to Improving Waterflood Sweep Efficiency. Presented at Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands, 29–31 August. SPE-28082-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/28082-MS.
Khan, M. and Teufel, L. W. 1996. Prediction of Production-Induced Changes in Reservoir Stress State Using Numerical Model. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6–9 October. SPE-36697-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/36697-MS.
Koutsabeloulis, N. and Zhang, X. 2009. 3D Reservoir Geomechanical Modeling in Oil/Gas Field Production: Presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 9–11 May. SPE-126095-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/126095-MS.
Koutsabeloulis, N. C. and Hope, S. A. 1998. “Coupled” Stress/Fluid-Thermal Multi-Phase Reservoir Simulation Studies Incorporating RockMechanics. Presented at SPE/ISRMRockMechanics in Petroleum Engineering, Trondheim, Norway, 8–10 July. SPE-47393-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/47393-MS.
Maxwell, S. C. and Cipolla, C. L. 2011. What Does Microseismicity Tell Us About Hydraulic Fracturing? Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146932-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146932-MS.
Min, K.-B., Lee, J., and Stephansson, O. 2013. Implications of Thermally-Induced Fracture Slip and Permeability Change on the Long-Term Performance of a Deep Geological Repository. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 61 (1): 275–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2013.03.009.
Molenaar, M. M., Hatchell, P. J., van den Beukel, A. C. et al. 2004. Applying Geo-Mechanics and 4D: “4D In-Situ Stress” as a Complementary Tool for Optimizing Field Management. Presented at Gulf Rocks 2004, the 6th North America Rock Mechanics Symposium, Houston, 5–9 June. ARMA-04-639.
Osorio, J. G., Chen, H.-Y., and Teufel, L. W. 1997a. Fully Coupled Fluid-Flow/Geomechanics Simulation of Stress-Sensitive Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Dallas, 8–11 June 1997. SPE-38023-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/38023-MS.
Osorio, J. G., Chen, H.-Y., and Teufel, L. W. 1997b. Numerical Simulation of Coupled Fluid-Flow/Geomechanical Behavior of Tight Gas Reservoirs with Stress Sensitive Permeability. Presented at the Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference and Exhibition, Rio de Janeiro, 30 August–3 September. SPE-39055-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39055-MS.
Palish, T. T., Duenckel, R. J., Bazan, L. W. et al. 2007. Determining Realistic Fracture Conductivity and Understanding Its Impact on Well Performance-Theory and Field Examples. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, College Station, Texas, 29–31 January. SPE-106301-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106301-MS.
Qiu, K., Cheng, N., Ke, X. et al. 2013. 3D Reservoir Geomechanics Work Flow and Its Application to a Tight Gas Reservoir in Western China. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Beijing, 26–28 March. IPTC-17115-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17115-MS.
Qiu, K., Marsden, R., Solovyov, Y. et al. 2005. Downscaling Geomechanics Data for Thin-Beds Using Petrophysical Techniques. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Kingdom of Bahrain, 12–15 March. SPE-93605-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/93605-MS.
Qiu, K., Yamamoto, K., Birchwood, R. A. et al. 2012. Evaluation of Fault Re-Activation Potential During Offshore Methane Hydrate Production in Nankai Trough, Japan. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 30 April–3 May. OTC-22890-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/22890-MS.
Qiu, K., Yamamoto, K., Birchwood, R. A. et al. 2014. Well Integrity Evaluation for Methane Hydrate Production in the Deepwater Nankai Trough. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 10–12 December. IPTC-17792-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17792-MS.
Renshaw, C. E. and Polland, D. D. 1995. An Experimentally Verified Criterion for Propagation Across Unbounded Friction Interfaces in Brittle, Linear Elastic Materials. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 32 (3): 237–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)00037-4.
Sayers, C. M., Den Boer, L., Lee, D. W. et al. 2006. Predicting Reservoir Compaction and Casing Deformation in Deepwater Turbidites Using a 3D Mechanical Earth Model. Presented at the International Oil Conference and Exhibition in Mexico, Cancun, Mexico, 31 August–2 September. SPE-103926-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/103926-MS.
Settari, A., Sullivan, R. B., Walters, D. A. et al. 2002. 3D Analysis and Prediction of Microseismicity in Fracturing by Coupled Geomechanical Modeling. Presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 30 April–2 May. SPE-75714-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/75714-MS.
Stone, T., Bowen, G., Papanastasiou, P. et al. 2000. Fully Coupled Geomechanics in a Commercial Reservoir Simulator. Presented at the SPE European Petroleum Conference, Paris, France, 24–25 October. SPE-65107-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/65107-MS.
Suarez-Rivera, R., Deenadayalu, C., Chertov, M. et al. 2011. Improving Horizontal Completions on Heterogeneous Tight-Shales. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 15–17 November. SPE-146998-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146998-MS.
Sulak, R. M. and Danielsen, J. 1989. Reservoir Aspects of Ekofisk Subsidence. J Pet Technol 41 (7): 709–716. SPE-17852-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/17852-PA.
Warpinski, N. R. and Teufel, L. W. 1987. Influence of Geological Discontinuities on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. J Pet Technol 39 (2): 209–220. SPE-13224-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13224-PA.
Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. J., Vincent, M. C. et al. 2008. Stimulating Unconventional Reservoirs: Maximizing Network Growth While Optimizing Fracture Conductivity. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Reservoirs Conference, Keystone, Colorado, 10–12 February. SPE-114173-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/114173-MS.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C.-E. et al. 2011. Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (4): 368–380. SPE-140253-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140253-PA.
Xie, J., Qiu, K., Zhong, B. et al. 2017. Construction of a 3D Geomechanical Model for Development of a Shale Gas Reservoir in Sichuan Basin. Presented at SPE Russian Petroleum Technology Conference, Moscow, 16–18 October 2017. SPE-187828-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/187828-MS.
Yang, X., Xu, J., Zhang, Y. et al. 2016. Decipher Productivity Secret to Optimize Well Stimulation for Keshen Tight Gas Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Asia Hydraulic Fracturing Conference, Beijing, 24–26 August. SPE-181830-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181830-MS.
Zhang, F., Huang, Y., Yang, X. et al. 2015a. Natural Productivity Analysis and Well Stimulation Strategy Optimization for the Naturally Fractured Keshen Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Oil & Gas India Conference and Exhibition, Mumbai, 24–26 November. SPE-178067-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/178067-MS.
Zhang, F., Qiu, K., Yang, X. et al. 2015b. A Study of the Interaction Mechanism Between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures in the KS Tight Gas Reservoir. Presented at EUROPEC 2015, Madrid, Spain, 1–4 June. SPE-174384-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174384-MS.
Zhang, X., Jeffrey, R. G., and Thiercelin, M. 2007. Deflection and Propagation of Fluid-Driven Fractures at Frictional Bedding Interfaces: A Numerical Investigation. J. Struct. Geol. 29 (9): 396–410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2006.09.013.