Case Study: 4D Coupled Reservoir/Geomechanics Simulation of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir
- Xiangtong Yang (PetroChina) | Yuanwei Pan (Schlumberger) | Wentong Fan (PetroChina) | Yongjie Huang (Schlumberger) | Yang Zhang (PetroChina) | Lizhi Wang (Schlumberger) | Lipeng Wang (Schlumberger) | Qi Teng (PetroChina) | Kaibin Qiu (Schlumberger) | Meng Zhao (Schlumberger) | Feng Shan (PetroChina)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,518 - 1,538
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Long–term Productivity, 4D Geomechanics, Tight Gas, HPHT, Natural Fracture
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 327 since 2007
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The Keshen Reservoir is a naturally fractured, deep, tight sandstone gas reservoir under high tectonic stress. Because the reservoir matrix is very tight, the natural-fracture system is the main pathway for gas production. Meanwhile, stimulation is still required for most production wells to provide production rates that sufficiently compensate for the high cost of drilling and completing wells to access this deep reservoir. Large depletion (and related stress change) was expected during the course of the production of the field. The dynamic response of the reservoir and related risks, such as reduction of fracture conductivity, fault reactivation, and casing failure, would compromise the long-term productivity of the reservoir.
To quantify the dynamic response of the reservoir and related risks, a 4D reservoir/geomechanics simulation was conducted for Keshen Reservoir by following an integrated work flow. The work started from systematic laboratory fracture-conductivity tests performed with fractured cores to measure conductivity vs. confining stress for both natural fractures and hydraulic fractures (with proppant placed in the fractures of the core samples). Natural-fracture modeling was conducted to generate a discrete-fracture network (DFN) to delineate spatial distribution of the natural-fracture system. In addition, hydraulic-fracture modeling was conducted to delineate the geometry of the hydraulic-fracture system for the stimulated wells. Then, a 3D geomechanical model was constructed by integrating geological, petrophysical, and geomechanical data, and both the DFN and hydraulic-fracture system were incorporated into the 3D geomechanical model. A 4D reservoir/geomechanics simulation was conducted through coupling with a reservoir simulator to predict variations of stress and strain of rock matrix as well as natural fractures and hydraulic fractures during field production. At each study-well location, a near-wellbore model was extracted from the full-field model, and casing and cement were installed to evaluate well integrity during production.
The 4D reservoir/geomechanics simulation revealed that there would be a large reduction of conductivity for both natural fractures and hydraulic fractures, and some fractures with certain dip/dip azimuth will be reactivated during the course of field production. The induced-stress change will also compromise well integrity for those poorly cemented wellbores. The field-development plan must consider all these risks to ensure sustainable long-term production.
The paper presents a 4D coupled geomechanics/reservoir-simulation study applied to a high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) naturally fractured reservoir, which has rarely been published previously. The study adapted several new techniques to quantify the mechanical response of both natural fractures and hydraulic fractures, such as using laboratory tests to measure stress sensitivity of natural fractures, integrating DFN and hydraulic-fracture systems into 4D geomechanics simulation, and evaluating well integrity on both the reservoir scale and the near-wellbore scale.
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