Development of an Empirical Equation To Predict Hydraulic-Fracture Closure Pressure From the Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure Using Subsurface Solids-Injection Data
- Sherif M. Kholy (Advantek Waste Management Services) | Ibrahim M. Mohamed (Advantek Waste Management Services) | Mehdi Loloi (Advantek Waste Management Services) | Omar Abou-Sayed (Advantek Waste Management Services) | Ahmed Abou-Sayed (Advantek Waste Management Services)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 290 - 301
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- ISIP, Fracture Closure, Hydraulic Fracture, Fracture Injection
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 155 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
During hydraulic-fracturing operations, conventional pressure-falloff analyses (G-function, square root of time, and other diagnostic plots) are the main methods for estimating fracture-closure pressure. However, there are situations when it is not practical to determine the fracture-closure pressure using these analyses. These conditions occur when closure time is long, such as in mini-fracture tests in very tight formations, or in slurry-waste-injection applications where the injected waste forms impermeable filter cake on the fracture faces that delays fracture closure because of slower liquid leakoff into the formation. In these situations, applying the conventional analyses could require several days of well shut-in to collect enough pressure-falloff data during which the fracture closure can be detected. The objective of the present study is to attempt to correlate the fracture-closure pressure to the early-time falloff data using the field-measured instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) and the petrophysical/mechanical properties of the injection formation.
A study of the injection-pressure history of many injection wells with multiple hydraulic fractures in a variety of rock lithologies shows a relationship between the fracture-closure pressure and the ISIP. An empirical equation is proposed in this study to calculate the fracture-closure pressure as a function of the ISIP and the injection-formation rock properties. Such rock properties include formation permeability, formation porosity, initial pore pressure, overburden stress, formation Poisson’s ratio, and Young’s modulus. The empirical equation was developed using data obtained from geomechanical models and the core analysis of a wide range of injection horizons with different lithology types of sandstone, carbonate, and tight sandstone.
The empirical equation was validated using different case studies by comparing the measured fracture-closure-pressure values with those predicted by using the developed empirical equation. In all cases, the new method predicted the fracture-closure pressure with a relative error of less than 6%.
The new empirical equation predicts the fracture-closure pressure using a single point of falloff-pressure data, the ISIP, without the need to conduct a conventional fracture-closure analysis. This allows the operator to avoid having to collect pressure data between shut-in and the time when the actual fracture closure occurs, which can take several days in highly damaged and/or very tight formations. Moreover, in operations with multiple-batch injection events into the same interval/perforations, as is often the case in cuttings/slurry-injection operations, the trends in closure-pressure evolution can be tracked even if the fracture is never allowed to close.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Abou-Sayed, A. S., Andrews, D. E., and Buhidma, I. M. 1989. Evaluation of Oil Waste Injection Below the Permafrost in Prudhoe Bay Field. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 5–7 April. SPE-18757-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/18757-MS.
Barree, R. D., Barree, V. L., and Craig, D. P. 2009. Holistic Fracture Diagnostics: Consistent Interpretation of Prefrac Injection Tests Using Multiple Analysis Methods. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (3): 396–406. SPE-107877-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/107877-PA.
Bartko, K., Rahim, Z., Ansah, J. et al. 2005. New Method for Determination of Formation Permeability, Reservoir Pressure, and Fracture Properties From a Minifrac Test. American Rock Mechanics Association. ARMA-05-658.
Bredehoeft, J. D., Wolff, R. G., and Shuter, E. 1976. Hydraulic Fracturing to Determine the Regional In-Situ Stress Field, Piceance Basin, Colorado. Geological Society of America Bulletin 87 (2): 250–258. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1976)87<250:HFTDTR>2.0.CO;2.
Canady, W. 2011. A Method for Full-Range Young’s Modulus Correction. Presented at the SPE North American Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 14–16 June. SPE-143604-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/143604-MS.
Dusterhoft, R., Vitthal, S., McMechan, D. et al. 1995. Improved Minifrac Analysis Technique in High-Permeability Formations. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 15–16 May. SPE-30103-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/30103-MS.
Eaton, B. A. 1969. Fracture Gradient Prediction and Its Application in Oilfield Operations. J Pet Technol 21 (10): 1353–1360. SPE-2163-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2163-PA.
Eaton, B. A. 1975. The Equation for Geopressure Prediction From Well Logs. Presented at the SPE Fall Meeting, Dallas, 28 September–1 October. SPE-5544-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/5544-MS.
Gandossi, L. and Van Estorff, U. 2015. An Overview of Hydraulic Fracturing and Other Formation Stimulation Technologies for Shale Gas Production. Scientific and Policy Report. Joint Research Centre of the European Commission.
Gronseth, J. M. and Kry, P. R. 1983. Instantaneous Shut-In Pressure and Its Relationship to the Minimum In-Situ Stress. In Hydraulic Fracturing Stress Measurements, ed. M. D. Zoback and B. C. Haimson. National Academy Press, pp. 55–60.
Haimson, B. 1972. Earthquake Related Stresses at Rangely, Colorado. Proc., 14th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, University Park, Pennsylvania, 11–14 June. ARMA-72-0689.
Haimson, B. C. and Lee, M. Y. 1987. The State of Stress and Natural Fractures in a Jointed Precambrian Rhyolite in South-Central Wisconsin. Presented at the 28th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Tucson, Arizona, 29 June–1 July. pp. 231–240. ARMA-87-0231.
Horner, D. R. 1951. Pressure Build-Up in Wells. Presented at the 3rd World Petroleum Congress, The Hague, 28 May–6 June. WPC-4135.
Howard, G. C. and Fast, C. R. 1970. Hydraulic Fracturing. Monograph Vol. 2, Henry L. Doherty Series. Richardson, Texas: SPE.
Hubbert, M. K. and Willis, D. G. 1957. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing. AIME Petroleum Trans. 210: 153–168. SPE-686-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/686-G.
Kehle, R. O. 1964. The Determination of Tectonic Stress Through Analysis of Hydraulic Well Fracturing. J. Geophys. Res. 69 (2): 259–273. https://doi.org/10.1029/JZ069i002p00259.
Kiel, O. M. 1970. A New Hydraulic Fracturing Process. J Pet Technol 22 (1): 89–96. SPE-2453-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2453-PA.
Marongiu-Porcu, M., Retnanto, A., Economides, M. J. et al. 2014. Comprehensive Fracture Calibration Test Design. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-168634-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168634-MS.
Matthews, W. R. and Kelly, J. 1967. How to Predict Formation Pressure and Fracture Gradient. Oil and Gas Journal 65 (8): 92–106.
McClure, M. W., Jung, H., Cramer, D. D. et al. 2016. The Fracture-Compliance Method for Picking Closure Pressure From Diagnostic Fracture Injection Tests. SPE J. 21 (4): 1321–1339. SPE-179725-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/179725-PA.
Mclennan, J. D. 1980. Hydraulic Fracturing: A Fracture Mechanics Approach. PhD thesis, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Mclennan, J. D. and Roegiers, J. C. 1982. How Instantaneous Are Instantaneous Shut-In Pressures? Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 26–29 September. SPE-11064-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/11064-MS.
Mohamed, I. M., Nasralla, R. A., Sayed, M. A. et al. 2011. Evaluation of After Closure Analysis Techniques for Tight and Shale Gas Formations. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 24–25 January. SPE-140136-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/140136-MS.
Moschovidis, Z., Steiger, R., Weng, X. et al. 1999. The Mounds Drill Cuttings Injection Field Experiment: Final Results and Conclusions. Presented at the 37th US Rock Mechanics Symposium, Vail, Colorado, 7–9 June. ARMA 99-1017.
Muskat, M. 1937. Use of Data Oil on the Build-Up of Bottom-Hole Pressures. Transactions of the AIME. 123 (1): 44–48. SPE-937044-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/937044-G.
Nolte, K. G. 1979. Determination of Fracture Parameters From Fracturing Pressure Decline. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, 23–26 September. SPE-8341-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/8341-MS.
Nolte, K. G. and Smith, M. B. 1981. Interpretation of Fracturing Pressures. SPE J. 33 (9): 1767–1775. SPE-8297-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8297-PA.
Nolte, K. G. 1988. Application of Fracture Design Based on Pressure Analysis. SPE Res Eng 3 (1): 31–42. SPE-13393-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13393-PA.
Perkins, T. K. and Gonzalez, J. A. 1985. The Effect of Thermoelastic Stresses on Injection Well Fracturing. SPE J. 25 (1): 78–88. SPE-11332-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/11332-PA.
Roegiers, J. C. 1974. The Development and Evaluation of a Field Method for In-Situ Stress Determination Using Hydraulic Fracturing. PhD thesis, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Shlyapobersky, J., Wong, G. K., and Walhaug, W. W. 1988. Overpressure Calibrated Design of Hydraulic Fracture Stimulations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 2–5 October. SPE-18194-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/18194-MS.
Singh, P. K., Agarwal, R. G., and Krase, L. D. 1987. Systematic Design and Analysis of Step-Rate Tests to Determine Formation Parting Pressure. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 27–30 September. SPE-16798-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/16798-MS.
Sirevag, G. and Bale, A. 1993. An Improved Method for Grinding and Reinjecting of Drill Cuttings. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, 22–25 February. SPE-25758-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/25758-MS.
Thompson, J. W. and Church, D. C. 1993. Design, Execution, and Evaluation of Minifracs in the Field: A Practical Approach and Case Study. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage, 26–28 May. SPE-26034-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/26034-MS.
Tiner, R. L., Ely, J. W., and Schraufnagel, R. 1996. Frac Packs—State of the Art. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6–9 October. SPE-36456-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/36456-MS.
Von Schoenfeldt, H. 1970. An Experimental Study of Open-Hole Hydraulic Fracturing as a Stress Measurement Method With Particular Emphasis on Field Trials. Technical Report MRD-3-70, Missouri River Division Corps of Engineers, Omaha, Nebraska (November 1970).
Warembourg, P. A., Klingensmith, E. A., Hodges Jr., J. E. et al. 1985. Fracture Stimulation Design and Evaluation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, 22–26 September. SPE-14379-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/14379-MS.
Warpinski, N. R. and Branagan, P. T. 1989. Altered Stress Fracturing. J Pet Technol 41 (9): 990–997. SPE-17533-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/17533-PA.
Zoback, M. D., Healy, J., and Roller, J. 1977. Preliminary Stress Measurements in Central California Using the Hydraulic Fracturing Technique. Pure Applied Geophys. 115 (1–2): 135–152. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0163710.