A Rigorous Solution to the Problem of Phase Behavior in Unconventional Formations With High Capillary Pressure
- Sajjad S. Neshat (University of Texas at Austin) | Ryosuke Okuno (University of Texas at Austin) | Gary A. Pope (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,438 - 1,451
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Connate water, pore size distribution, Unconventional, Three-phase capillary pressure, Capillary Equilibrium
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 211 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Phase behavior of hydrocarbon mixtures is affected by the petrophysical properties of the formation. This paper integrates several important thermodynamic and petrophysical aspects of the problem in a rigorous way and introduces a solution that can be applied over the range of pore sizes in tight and shale formations in which hydrocarbons can be practically recovered. A new criterion for phase-stability analysis is introduced that results in discovery of a new range of solutions for the capillary equilibrium problem. A novel three-phase capillary pressure model has been used to estimate the effect of connate water on the gas/oil capillary pressure. The model is then used in conjunction with the new stability method to solve several phase-behavior problems for binary and multicomponent reservoir fluids. We show that the new approach can significantly improve the estimation of phase behavior at high capillary pressure.
|File Size||1017 KB||Number of Pages||14|
Al Hinai, A., Rezaee, R., Esteban, L. et al. 2014. Comparisons of Pore Size Distribution: A Case From the Western Australian Gas Shale Formations. J. Unconven. Oil Gas Resour. 159 (December): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juogr.2014.06.002.
Barsotti, E., Tan, S. P., Saraji, S. et al. 2016. A Review on Capillary Condensation in Nanoporous Media: Implications for Hydrocarbon Recovery from Tight Reservoirs. Fuel 184 (15): 344–361. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.06.123.
Bradford, S. and Leij, F. 1995. Wettability Effects on Scaling Two- and Three-Fluid Capillary Pressure-Saturation Relations. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29 (6): 1446–1455. https://doi.org/10.1021/es00006a004.
Brusilovsky, A. I. 1992. Mathematical Simulation of Phase Behavior of Natural Multicomponent Systems at High Pressure With an Equation of State. SPE Res Eng 7 (1): 117–122. SPE-20180-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20180-PA.
Campos, M. D., Akkulu, I. Y., and Sigal, R. F. 2009. Molecular Dynamics Study on Natural Gas Solubility Enhancement in Water Confined to Small Pores. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124491-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124491-MS.
Clarkson, C. R., Solano, N., Bustin, R. M. et al. 2013. Pore Structure Characterization of No North American Shale Gas Reservoirs Using USANS/SANS, Gas Adsorption, and Mercury Intrusion. Fuel 103 (January): 606–616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.06.119.
Dernaika, M., Al Jallad, O., Koronfol, S. et al. 2015. Petrophysical and Fluid Flow Properties of a Tight Carbonate Source Rock Using Digital Rock Physics. Presented at the Unconventional Resources and Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July. URTEC-2154815-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2154815.
Hough, E. W. and Stegemeier, G. L. 1961. Correlation of Surface and Interfacial Tension of Light Hydrocarbons in the Critical Region. SPE J. 1 (4): 259–263. SPE-197-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/197-PA.
Jhaveri, B. S. and Youngren, G. K. 1988. Three-Parameter Modification of the Peng-Robinson Equation of State To Improve Volumetric Predictions. SPE J. 3 (3): 1033–1040. SPE-13118-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13118-PA.
Kalaydjian, F.J-M. 1992. Performance and Analysis of Three-Phase Capillary Pressure Curves for Drainage and Imbibition in Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4–7 October. SPE-24878-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/24878-MS.
Kuila, U. and Prasad, M. 2013. Specific Surface Area and Pore-Size Distribution in Clays and Shales. Geophysical Prospecting 61 (2): 341–362. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2478.12028.
Loucks, R. G., Reed, R. M., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2009. Morphology, Genesis, and Distribution of Nanometer-Scale Pores in Siliceous Mudstones of the Mississippian Barnett Shale. J. Sediment. Res. 79 (12): 848–861. https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2009.092.
Luo, S., Nasrabadi, H., and Lutkenhaus, J. L. 2016. Effect of Confinement on the Bubble Points of Hydrocarbons in Nanoporous Media. AlChE J. 62 (5): 1772–1780. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.15154.
Mehrabi, M., Javadpour, F., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2017. Analytical Analysis of Gas Diffusion into Non-Circular Pores of Shale Organic Matter. J. Fluid Mech. 819 (25 May): 656–677. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2017.180.
Michelsen, M. 1982. The Isothermal Flash Problem. Part I. Stability. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 9 (1): 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(82)85001-2.
Nelson, P. 2009. Pore-Throat Sizes in Sandstones, Tight Sandstones, and Shales. AAPG Bull. 93 (3): 329–340. https://doi.org/10.1306/10240808059.
Neshat, S. S. and Pope. G. A. 2017. Compositional Three-Phase Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure Models Using Gibbs Free Energy. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Conference, Montgomery, Texas, 20–22 February. SPE-182592-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/182592-MS.
Newsham, K. E., Lasswell, P. M., Cox, J. C. et al. 2004. A Comparative Study of Laboratory Techniques for Measuring Capillary Pressures in Tight Gas Sands. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-89866-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/89866-MS.
Nojabaei, B., Johns, R. T., and Chu, L. 2013. Effect of Capillary Pressure on Phase Behavior in Tight Rocks and Shales. SPE J. 16 (3): 281–289. SPE-159258-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/159258-PA.
Orangi, A., Nagarajan, N. R., Honarpour, M. M. et al. 2011. Unconventional Shale Oil and Gas-Condensate Reservoir Production, Impact of Rock, Fluid, and Hydraulic Fractures. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 24–26 January. SPE-140536-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/140536-MS.
Peng, D. Y. and Robinson, D. B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen. 15 (1): 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Péneloux, A., Rauzy, E., and Fréze, R. 1982. A Consistent Correction for Redlich-Kwong-Soave Volumes. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 8 (1): 7–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(82)80002-2.
Rachford, J. H. and Rice, J. D. 1952. Procedure for Use of Electronic Digital Computers in Calculating Flash Vaporization Hydrocarbon Equilibrium. J Pet Technol 4 (10): 327–328. https://doi.org/10.2118/952327-G.
Rezaveisi, M., Sepehrnoori, K., Pope, G. A. et al. 2015. Compositional Simulation Including Effect of Capillary Pressure on Phase Behavior. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175135-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175135-MS.
Russo, P. A., Carrott, M. M. L. R., and Carrott, P. J. M. 2011. Hydrocarbons Adsorption on Templated Mesoporous Materials: Effect of the Pore Size, Geometry and Surface Chemistry. New J. Chem. 35 (2): 407–416. https://doi.org/10.1039/C0NJ00614A.
Sandoval, D., Yan, W., Michelsen, M. et al. 2016. The Phase Envelope of Multicomponent Mixtures in the Presence of a Capillary Pressure Difference. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 55 (22): 6530–6538. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.6b00972.
Schechter, D. S. and Guo, B. 1998. Parachors Based on Modern Physics and Their Uses in IFT Prediction of Reservoir Fluids. SPE J. 1 (3): 207–217. SPE-30785-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/30785-PA.
Shapiro, A. and Stenby, E. 2001. Thermodynamics of the Multicomponent Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Under Capillary Pressure Difference. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 178 (1–2): 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(00)00403-9.
Sigal, R. F. 2015. Pore-Size Distributions for Organic-Shale-Reservoir Rocks From Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Spectra Combined With Adsorption Measurements. SPE J. 20 (4): 824–830. SPE-174546-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174546-PA.
Sigmund, P. M., Dranchuk, P. M., Morrow, N. R. et al. 1973. Retrograde Condensate in Porous Media. SPE J. 13 (2): 93104. SPE-3476-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3476-PA.
Singh, S. K., Sinha, A., Deo, G. et al. 2009. Vapor-Liquid Phase Coexistence, Critical Properties, and Surface Tension of Confined Alkanes. J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (17): 7170–7180. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp8073915.
Soave, G. 1972. Equilibrium Constants From Modified Redlich-Kwong Equation of State. Chem. Eng. Sci. 27: 1197–1203. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(72)80096-4.
Travalloni, L., Castier, M., Tavares, F. W. et al. 2010. Thermodynamic Modeling of Confined Fluids Using an Extension of the Generalized van der Waals Theory. Chem. Eng. Sci. 65 (10): 3088–3099. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2010.01.032.
Trebin, F. A. and Zadora, G. I. 1968. Experimental Study of the Effect of a Porous Media on Phase Changes in Gas Condensate Systems. Neft’i Gaz 8 (1): 37–40.
Virnovsky, G. A., Vatne, O. K., Iversen, J. E. et al. 2004. Three-Phase Capillary Pressure Measurements in Centrifuge at Reservoir Conditions. Presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Abu Dhabi, 5–9 October. SCA 2004-19.
Wang, L., Yin, X., Neeves, K. B. et al. 2016. Effect of Pore-Size Distribution on Phase Transition of Hydrocarbon Mixtures in Nanoporous Media. SPE J. 21 (6): 1981–1995. SPE-170894-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170894-PA.
Weinaug, C. F. and Katz, D. L. 1943. Surface Tensions of Methane-Propane Mixtures. Ind. Eng. Chem. 35 (2): 239–246. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50398a028.
Whitson, C. H. and Brule, M. R. 2000. Phase Behavior, Vol. 20. Richardson, Texas: Monograph Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Xu, C. and Torres-Verdin, C. 2014. Petrophysical Rock Classification in the Cotton Valley Tight-Gas Sandstone Reservoir With a Clustering Pore-System Orthogonality. Interpretation 2 (1): 13–23. https://doi.org/10.1190/INT-2013-0063.1.
Yu, W., Lashgari, H. R., Wu, K. et al. 2015. CO2 Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Bakken Tight Oil Reservoirs. Fuel 159 (1 November): 354–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.06.092.
Zhang, L., Lu, S., Xiao, D. et al. 2017. Characterization of Full Pore Size Distribution and its Significance to Macroscopic Physical Parameters in Tight Glutenites. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 38 (February): 434–449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.12.026.