Comparative Study of Oil-Dilution Capability of Dimethyl Ether and Hexane as Steam Additives for Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage
- Kwang Hoon Baek (University of Texas at Austin) | Kai Sheng (University of Texas at Austin) | Francisco J. Argüelles-Vivas (University of Texas at Austin) | Ryosuke Okuno (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- October 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Dimethyl ether, Viscosity reduction, Steam-solvent coinjection, Steam-assisted gravity drainage, Phase behavior
- 14 in the last 30 days
- 78 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Dimethyl ether (DME) was investigated as a potential additive to steam to improve steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) in a previous simulation study. The main objective of this research is to compare DME with n-hexane in terms of the capability of viscosity reduction for Athabasca bitumen. In addition, new experimental data are presented for bubblepoint pressures, densities, and viscosities of Athabasca bitumen and its mixtures with DME and n-hexane.
Results show that DME results in slightly higher viscosity than n-hexane when they are mixed with the same Athabasca bitumen at a given pressure, temperature, and molar concentration. For example, the equimolar mixture of DME with Athabasca bitumen is 79 cp, and that of n-hexane with the same bitumen is 49 cp at 328 K and 60 bar. However, the two solvents are equivalent as diluent at temperatures higher than 380 K. For example, the difference is approximately 1 cp at 382 K and 35 bar between the equimolar mixture of Athabasca bitumen with DME and that with n-hexane.
The viscosity data measured for bitumen/n-hexane mixtures and bitumen/DME mixtures in this research were correlated with three different viscosity models: a modified Arrhenius model, the power-law model, and the Walther (1931) model. The viscosity data were well-correlated with the modified Arrhenius model, but not with the original Arrhenius (log-linear mixing) rule. The modified Arrhenius model can be used directly with a commercial simulator.
Liquid/liquid separation for solvent/bitumen mixtures, which occurred for n-butane/Athabasca bitumen in Gao et al. (2017), was not observed for any of the DME/bitumen and n-hexane/bitumen mixtures in this research. The highest solvent concentration in this study was 80 mol% DME for the DME/bitumen system and 92 mol% n-hexane for the n-hexane/bitumen system.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Alkindi, A., Al-Azri, N., Said, D. et al. 2016. Persistence in EOR-Design of a Field Trial in a Carbonate Reservoir Using Solvent-Based Water-Flood Process. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 21–23 March. SPE-179838-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179838-MS.
Argillier, J.-F., Henaut, I., Gateau, P. et al. 2005. Heavy Oil Dilution. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 1–3 November. SPE-97763-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/97763-MS.
Arrhenius, S. 1887. Über die Dissociation der in Wasser Gelösten Stoffe (On the Dissociation of Substances Dissolved in Water). Z. Phys. Chem. 1U (1): 631–648. https://doi.org/10.1515/zpch-1887-0164.
ASTM D4006, Standard Test Method for Water in Crude Oil by Distillation. 2016. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
Barton, A. F. 1991. CRC Handbook of Solubility Parameters and Other Cohesion Parameters, second edition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Chahardowli, M., Farajzadeh, R., and Bruining, H. 2016. Experimental Investigation of Dimethyl Ether/Polymer Hybrid as an Enhanced Oil Recovery Method. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 21–23 March. SPE-179850-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179850-MS.
Chernetsky, A., Masalmeh, S., Eikmans, D. et al. 2015. A Novel Enhanced Oil Recovery Technique: Experimental Results and Modelling Workflow of the DME Enhanced Waterflood Technology. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 9–12 November. SPE-177919-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/177919-MS.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). 2014. STARS Version 2014 User Guide. Calgary: CMG.
Dehaghani, A. H. S. and Badizad, M. H. 2016. Experimental Study of Iranian Heavy Crude Oil Viscosity Reduction by Diluting With Heptane, Methanol, Toluene, Gas Condensate and Naphtha. Petroleum 2 (4): 415–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petlm.2016.08.012.
Gao, J., Okuno, R., and Li, H. A. 2017. An Experimental Study of Multiphase Behavior for n-Butane/Bitumen/Water Mixtures. SPE J. 22 (3): 783–798. SPE-180736-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/180736-PA.
Gao, J., Okuno, R., and Li, H. A. 2018. A Phase-Behavior Study for n-Hexane/Bitumen and n-Octane/Bitumen Mixtures. SPE J. 23 (1): 128–144. SPE-186097-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/186097-PA.
Gates, I. D. 2007. Oil Phase Viscosity Behavior in Expanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 59 (1–2): 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.03.006.
Glandt, C. A. and Chapman, W. G. 1995. The Effect of Water Dissolution on Oil Viscosity. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (1): 59–64. SPE-24631-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/24631-PA.
Groot, J. A. W. M., Eikmans, D., Fadili, A. et al. 2016a. Field-Scale Modelling and Sensitivity Analysis of DME Enhanced Waterflooding. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 21–23 March. SPE-179798-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179798-MS.
Groot, J. A. W. M., Chernetsky, A., te Riele, P. M. et al. 2016b. Representation of Phase Behavior and PVTWorkflow for DME Enhanced Water-Flooding. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 21–23 March. SPE-179771-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179771-MS.
Gupta, S., Gittins, S., and Picherack, P. 2005. Field Implementation of Solvent Aided Process. J Can Pet Technol 44 (11): 8–13. PETSOC-05-11-TN1. https://doi.org/10.2118/05-11-TN1.
Gupta, S. C. and Gittins, S. D. 2006. Christina Lake Solvent Aided Process Pilot. J Can Pet Technol 45 (9): 15–18. PETSOC-06-09-TN. https://doi.org/10.2118/06-09-TN.
Haddadnia, A., Azinfar, B., Zirrahi, M. et al. 2018. Thermophysical Properties of Dimethyl Ether/Athabasca Bitumen System. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 96 (2): 597–604. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.23009.
Hansen, C. M. 1967. The Three Dimensional Solubility Parameter and Solvent Diffusion Coefficient: Their Importance in Surface Coating Formulation. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Technical Press.
Ihmels, E. C. and Lemmon, E. W. 2007. Experimental Densities, Vapor Pressures, and Critical Point, and a Fundamental Equation of State for Dimethyl Ether. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 260 (1): 36–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2006.09.016.
Ivory, J. J., Zheng, R., Nasr, T. N. et al. 2008. Investigation of Low Pressure ES-SAGD. Presented at the International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 20–23 October. SPE-117759-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/117759-MS.
Kariznovi, M., Nourozieh. H., Guan. J. et al. 2013. Measurement and Modeling of Density and Viscosity for Mixtures of Athabasca Bitumen and Heavy n-Alkane. Fuel 112 (October): 83–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.04.071.
Keshavarz, M., Okuno, R., and Babadagli, T. 2014. Efficient Oil Displacement Near the Chamber Edge in ES-SAGD. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 118 (June): 99–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.04.007.
Keshavarz, M., Okuno, R., and Babadagli, T. 2015. Optimal Application Conditions for Steam/Solvent Coinjection. SPE Res Eval & Eng 18 (1): 20–38. SPE-165471-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/165471-PA.
Leaute, R. P. and Carey, B. S. 2002. Liquid Addition to Steam for Enhancing Recovery (LASER) of Bitumen With CSS: Evolution of Technology From Research Concept to a Field Pilot at Cold Lake. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and International Horizontal Well Technology Conference, Calgary, 4–7 November. PETSOC-2005-161. https://doi.org/10.2118/2005-161.
Li, W., Mamora, D. D., and Li, Y. 2011a. Light- and Heavy-Solvent Impacts on Solvent-Aided-SAGD Process: A Low-Pressure Experimental Study. J Can Pet Technol 50 (4): 19–30. SPE-133277-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/133277-PA.
Li, W., Mamora, D. D., and Li, Y. 2011b. Solvent-Type and -Ratio Impacts on Solvent-Aided SAGD Process. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (3): 320–331. SPE-130802-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/130802-PA.
Malkin, A. Y., Rodionova, G., Simon, S. et al. 2016. Some Compositional Viscosity Correlations for Crude Oils From Russia and Norway. Energy Fuels 30 (11): 9322–9328. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02084.
Mehrotra, A. K. and Svrcek, W. Y. 1986. Viscosity of Compressed Athabasca Bitumen. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 64 (5): 844–847. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450640520.
Michailidou, E. K., Assael, M. J., Huber. M. L. et al. 2013. Reference Correlation of the Viscosity of n-Hexane From the Triple Point to 600 K and Up to 100 MPa. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 42 (3): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4818980.
Mohebati, M. H., Maini, B. B., and Harding, T. G. 2012. Numerical-Simulation Investigation of the Effect of Heavy-Oil Viscosity on the Performance of Hydrocarbon Additives in SAGD. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (2): 165–181. SPE-138151-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/138151-PA.
Nasr, T. N., Beaulieu, G., Golbeck, H. et al. 2003. Novel Expanding Solvent-SAGD Process “ES-SAGD.” J Can Pet Technol 42 (1): 13–16. PETSOC-03-01-TN. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-01-TN.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., Guan, J. G. et al. 2013. Measurement of Thermophysical Properties and Modeling for Pseudo-Binary Mixtures of n-Decane and Athabasca Bitumen. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 347 (15 June): 62–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2013.03.010.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2015a. Density and Viscosity of Athabasca Bitumen Samples at Temperatures Up to 200°C and Pressures Up to 10 MPa. SPE J. 18 (3): 375–386. SPE-176026-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/176026-PA.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2015b. Viscosity Measurement and Modeling for Mixtures of Athabasca Bitumen/Hexane. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 129 (May): 159–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.03.002.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2015c. Viscosity Measurement and Modeling for Mixtures of Athabasca Bitumen/n-Pentane at Temperatures Up to 200°C. SPE J. 20 (2): 226–238. SPE-170252-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170252-PA.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2015d. Experimental and Modeling Studies of Phase Behavior for Propane/Athabasca Bitumen Mixtures. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 397 (15 July): 37–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2015.03.047.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2017. Solubility of n-Butane in Athabasca Bitumen and Saturated Densities and Viscosities at Temperatures Up to 200°C. SPE J. 22 (1): 94–102. SPE-180927-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/180927-PA.
Parsons, C., Chernetsky, A., Eikmans, D. et al. 2016. Introducing a Novel Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179560-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179560-MS.
Ramos-Pallares, F., Schoeggl, F. F., Taylor, S. D. et al. 2015. Predicting the Viscosity of Hydrocarbon Mixtures and Diluted Heavy Oils Using the Expanded Fluid Model. Energy Fuels 30 (5): 3575–3595. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b01951.
Shen, C. 2013. Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies, first edition. New York City: Elsevier.
Sheng, K., Okuno, R., and Wang, M. 2018. Dimethyl Ether as an Additive to Steam for Improved Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. SPE J. 23 (4): 1201–1222. SPE-184983-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/184983-PA.
te Riele, P., Parsons, C., Boerrigter, P. et al. 2016. Implementing a Water Soluble Solvent Based Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology-Aspects of Field Development Planning. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 21–23 March. SPE-179849-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179849-MS.
Venkatramani, A. V. and Okuno, R. 2017. Compositional Mechanisms in Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage and Expanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage With Consideration of Water Solubility in Oil. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (3): 681–697. SPE-180737-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/180737-PA.
Venkatramani, A. V. and Okuno, R. 2018. Mechanistic Simulation Study of Expanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Under Reservoir Heterogeneity. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 169 (October): 146–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2018.04.074.
Walther, C. 1931. The Evaluation of Viscosity Data. Erdol Teer 7: 382–384.
Wu, J. and Yin, J. 2008. Vapor Pressure Measurements of Dimethyl Ether From (213 to 393) K. J. Chem. Eng. Data 53 (9): 2247–2249. https://doi.org/10.1021/je800375t.
Wu, J., Liu, Z., Bi, S. et al. 2003. Viscosity of Saturated Liquid Dimethyl Ether From (227 to 343) K. J. Chem. Eng. Data 48 (2): 426–429. https://doi.org/10.1021/je0256232.
Wu, J., Liu, Z., Wang, B. et al. 2004. Measurement of the Critical Parameters and the Saturation Densities of Dimethyl Ether. J. Chem. Eng. Data 49 (3): 704–708. https://doi.org/10.1021/je034251+.
Zhu, D. and Okuno, R. 2016. Multiphase Isenthalpic Flash Integrated With Stability Analysis. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 423 (15 September): 203–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2016.04.005.
Zou, X.-Y., Zhang, X., and Shaw, J. A. M. 2007. Phase Behavior of Athabasca Vacuum Bottomsþn-Alkane Mixtures. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (2): 265–272. SPE-97661-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/97661-PA.