Numerical Simulation and Modeling of Critical Sand-Deposition Velocity for Solid/Liquid Flow
- Ramin Dabirian (The University of Tulsa) | Hadi Arabnejad Khanouki (The University of Tulsa) | Ram S. Mohan (The University of Tulsa) | Ovadia Shoham (The University of Tulsa)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Turbulent Flow, Critical Sand Deposition Velocity, Particle Transport
- 16 in the last 30 days
- 31 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Efficient transport of sand or cuttings is very important in the oil and gas industry, and the fluid velocity in these processes should be sufficiently high to keep particles continuously moving along the pipe. This minimum fluid velocity below which particles deposit—defined as the critical velocity—depends on various factors, including flow regime, particle size, particle concentration, phase velocities, and fluid viscosity. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parameters such as particle size and liquid viscosity on solid/particle transport in horizontal pipelines by use of computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) simulations and to validate the numerical-model predictions with experimental data. Also, a mechanistic model that is based on force balance is proposed to predict the critical velocity under various experimental conditions.
CFD simulations have been conducted with a commercially available software (ANSYS-FLUENT). An Eulerian model with a k-w shear-stress transport (SST) turbulence-closure model is used to simulate the fluid flow while particles are tracked as the Lagrangian phase. In these simulations, an eddy-interaction model is included to consider the effect of flow turbulence on particle tracking. The simulations are created for a 0.05-m pipe diameter with a 4-m length. The simulations are initialized at relatively high fluid velocity, which is gradually reduced until the particle velocity drops below the acceptable critical velocity.
The CFD simulation and proposed mechanistic model results are validated with experimental data from literature (Najmi 2015; Najmi et al. 2016) for two particle sizes and multiple liquid viscosities. The simulation and model results show that, depending on the flow regimes (laminar or turbulent) and particle size, the critical velocity demonstrates a similar trend with carrier liquid viscosity as that of the experimental data. However, both the CFD and developed models show poor performance for higher particle size (600 µm). Also, the CFD simulations, experimental data, and proposed-model results are compared with three models currently used in the industry, namely, the Oroskar and Turian (1980) model, the Salama (2000) model, and the Danielson (2007) model.
|File Size||589 KB||Number of Pages||13|
Arabnejad, H., Leng, Y., McLaury, B. S. et al. 2017. Evaluation of Pipeline Sand Sampling Practices in Petroleum Industry. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 9–11 October. SPE-187158-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/187158-MS.
Cabrejos, F. J. 1991. Incipient Motion of Solid Particles in Pneumatic Conveying. MS thesis, University of Pittsburg, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.
Dabirian, R., Mohan, R., Shoham, O. et al. 2015. Sand Transport in Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Pipeline. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-174960-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174960-MS.
Dabirian, R., Mohan, R., Shoham O. et al. 2016a. Critical Sand Deposition Velocity for Gas-Liquid Stratified Flow in Horizontal Pipes. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 33: 527–537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.05.008.
Dabirian, R., Mohan, R., Shoham, O. et al. 2016b. Sand-Particles Flow Regimes in Air-Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Pipeline. Oil & Gas Fac 5 (6): 14 pages. SPE-174960-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/174960-PA.
Danielson, T. J. 2007. Sand Transport Modeling in Multiphase Pipelines. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 30 April–3 May. OTC-18691-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/18691-MS.
Delavan, M. 2012. A Comparison of Experimental Models to Literature Data and Effect of Viscosity in Sand Transport. MS thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Holte, S., Angelsen, S., Kvernvold, O. et al. 1987. Sand Bed Formation in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Gas-Liquid-Sand. Presented at the European Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting, Trondheim, 1–4 June.
Ibarra, R. J. 2012. Critical Sand Deposition Velocity in Horizontal Stratified Flow at Low Concentrations. MS thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Ibarra, R. J., Mohan, R., and Shoham, O. 2016. Investigation of Critical Sand Deposition Velocity in Horizontal Gas/Liquid Stratified Flow. SPE Prod & Oper 32 (3): 218–227. SPE-168209-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/168209-PA.
Morrison, F. A. 2013. Data Correlation for Drag Coefficient for Sphere, Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan.
Najmi, K. 2015. Particle Transport in Single-Phase and Multiphase Horizontal Pipes with Emphasis on the Effect of Viscosity. PhD dissertation, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Najmi, K., McLaury, B. S., Shirazi, S. A. et al. 2016. The Effect of Viscosity on Low Concentration Particle Transport in Single-Phase (Liquid) Horizontal Pipes. Journal of Energy Resources Technology 138 (3): 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4032227.
Oroskar, A. R. 1979. Flow of Slurries in Horizontal Pipeline. MS thesis, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York.
Oroskar, A. R. and Turian, R. M. 1980. The Critical Velocity in Pipeline Flow of Slurries. AIChE J. 26 (4): 550–558. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690260405.
Persen, L. N. 1972. Introduction to Boundary Layer Theory. Trondheim, Norway: Tapir. pp. 83–130.
Rabinovich, E. and Kalman, H. 2009. Incipient Motion of Individual Particles in Horizontal Particle–Fluid Systems: A. Experimental Analysis. Powder Technology 192 (3): 318–325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2009.01.013.
Ramadan, A., Skalle, P., Johansen, S. T. et al. 2001. Mechanistic Model for Cutting Removal from Solid Bed in Inclined Channels. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 30: 129–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(01)00108-5.
Ramadan, A., Skalle, P., and Johansen, S. T. 2003. A Mechanistic Model to Determine the Critical Flow Velocity Required to Initiate the Movement of Spherical Bed Particles in Inclined Channels. Chemical Engineering Science 58 (10): 2153–2163. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(03)00061-7.
Saffman, P. G. 1965. The Lift on Small Sphere in a Slow Shear Flow. J. Fluid Mechanic 22 (2): 385–400. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112065000824.
Sajeev, S., McLaury, B., and Shirazi, S. 2017. Critical Velocities for Particle Transport From Experiments and CFD Simulations. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering 11 (6).
Salama, M. M. 2000. Sand Production Management. Journal of Energy Resources Technology 122 (1): 29–33. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.483158.
Soepyan, F. B., Cremaschi, S., McLaury, B. S. et al. 2016. Threshold Velocity to Initiate Particle Motion in Horizontal and Near-Horizontal Conduits. Powder Technology 292 (May): 272–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2016.01.031.
Soepyan, F. P. 2015. A Model Evaluation and Uncertainty Propagation Method to Increase the Confidence of Model Predictions. PhD dissertation, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Wang, Q., Squires, K. D., Chen, M. et al. 1997. On the Role of the Lift Force in Turbulence Simulations of Particle Deposition. International Journal of Multiphase Flow 23 (4): 749–763. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9322(97)00014-1.
White, S. J. 1970. Plane Bed Threshold of Fine Grained Sediments. Nature 228: 152–153. https://doi.org/10.1038/228152a0.
Wicks, M. 1971. Transport of Solids at Low Concentration in Horizontal Pipes. Advances in Solid-Liquid Flows in Pipes and Its Application, ed. I. Zandi. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press. pp. 101–124.
Yalin, M. S. and Karahan, F. 1979. Inception of Sediment Transport. J. Hydraul. Div. 105 (11): 1433–1443.