SP Log Interpretation in Shaly Sands
- L.J.M. Smits (Koninklijke/Shell Exploratie En Produktie Laboratorium)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- June 1968
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 123 - 136
- 1968. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.1 Hydrates, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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A theoretical equation is developed describing membrane potentials of shaly sands as a function of the cation-exchange capacity per unit pore volume of the rock and saturating water salinity. This equation is based on the same simple physical model as that employed earlier describing the electrical conductivity of shaly sands. Experiments conducted with NaCl solutions showed that the equation is obeyed, except in the case of saturated salt solutions where minor deviations were observed. A possible explanation is given for this discrepancy.
As the clay content and the porosity of shales may vary appreciably, shale membrane potentials also vary. It was found that membrane potentials of shales can be calculated accurately with the aid of the same theory. Consequently, changes in membrane potentials can be accounted for by simple measurement of cation-exchange capacities per unit pore volume of both shales and shaly sands. Charts are given to facilitate interpretation of the electrochemical part of the SP in terms of cation-exchange capacities and the salinities of mud filtrate and formation water.
A spontaneous potential (SP) log is a record of the way in which the electrical potential of a sonde varies as it passes down a borehole. Such variations frequently reflect rock texture, e.g., permeable beds intercalated in an impermeable series often are indicated by a sharp change in potential. Nowadays it is recognized that SP logs may be interpreted in terms of formation-water salinity and formation shaliness.
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