Rock Failure During Tooth Impact and Dynamic Filtration
- G.M. Myers (The U. Of Texas) | K.E. Gray (The U. Of Texas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- June 1968
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 163 - 173
- 1968. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control
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In previous publications, results of single-blow bit tooth impacts on saturated rocks at various stress states were reported. This paper extends these earlier works to include study of bit impact tests on salt water-saturated Berea and Bandera sandstone samples under conditions of elevated confining and pore pressure. During the tests dynamic filtration and deposition of a mud cake were occurring due to the presence of drilling mud in the borehole and a borehole-to-formation pressure differential.
Results indicate that saturation of these sandstones with salt water tends to make them weaker than when saturated with nonreactive fluids. Plastic failure often occurs even when extremely high fluid-loss muds are present in the borehole. The failure mode tends toward plasticity with decreasing fluid loss. Brittle failure of sandstones in mud-filled holes is apparently relatively rare. Depending on the stress level, and the associated failure mode, withdrawal of the bit tooth induces a tensile force that seems rather important relative to the quantity of rock removed by vertical tooth impact.
A vast majority of the oil wells drilled today involve the use of colloidal muds having a measurable mud filtrate loss. It is known from field experience that reduction of the water loss of a mud generally results in a reduction of the penetration rate. This paper describes an investigation of crater formation at simulated bottom-hole pressure conditions for drilling fluids having different water losses.
The literature on single bit tooth impact (cratering) at atmospheric conditions is extensive, but only a limited amount of work has been performed at the stress conditions similar to that found in oil wells. Spherical penetrator cratering tests on rocks at hydrostatic pressure were performed by Payne and Chippendale. Chisel impact studies on limestone with independently varying overburden and borehole pressure and atmospheric pore pressure were reported by Garner, et al. Gnirk and Cheatham performed "static" penetrator tests on dry rocks at equal overburden and borehole pressures. Podio and Gray studied the effect of pore fluid viscosity at atmospheric pore and borehole pressures and varying overburden pressures. Their results illustrated the importance of fluid saturation of the rock. Yang and Gray reported single tooth impact tests on saturated rocks at elevated borehole, pore and confining pressures, but with equal pore and borehole pressures. For the work reported in Refs. 4 and 5, filtration across the hole bottom purposely was avoided. Maurer has investigated the effect of independently varying pore and borehole pressures at elevated overburden pressures by using a zero water-loss mud in the borehole. His tests were carried out under conditions that allowed independent control of overburden, pore and borehole pressures, but without control of filtration at the hole bottom.
EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE
The single blow chisel impact apparatus used by Gamer, as modified for this study, is shown in Fig. 1. A cross section of the pressure vessel is shown in Fig. 2. Several pieces of auxiliary equipment were added to the original apparatus in order that the borehole and pore pressure could be applied in a manner analogous to the actual bottom-hole situation. The pore-pressure system included a filtrate volume-measuring transducer and had sufficient surge capacity to allow filtrate to be injected into the sample without significant changes in pore pressure at points remote to the borehole. The borehole-pressure system contained a cross connection to the pore-pressure system so that both systems could be pressured simultaneously. The borehole-pore pressure differential was applied rapidly by the use of a quick and full-opening valve.
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