Polymer Stability After Successive Mechanical-Degradation Events
- Stéphane Jouenne (Total E&P) | Hafssa Chakibi (IFP Energies Nouvelles) | David Levitt (Total E&P)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 18 - 33
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Mechanical degradation, Degradational kinetics, Near wellbore degradation, HPAM, Polymer flooding
- 16 in the last 30 days
- 578 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
A key challenge in polymer-flood forecasting is the prediction of polymer stability far from the injector. Degradation may result from various mechanical-degradation events in surface facilities and at the wellbore interface, as well as possible oxidative degradation caused by the presence of oxygen and reduced transition metals. All these steps must be closely examined to minimize degradation and ensure propagation of a viscous polymer solution.
In this paper, polymer solutions are pushed toward degradation rates that would be unacceptable for enhanced-oil-recovery applications to better understand the underlying physics. Multistep degradation events are induced in various geometries, such as capillaries, blenders, and porous media.
For the geometries and range of polymer and salt concentrations investigated, degradation (as defined here) approaches an asymptotic value as the number of degrading events increases. An empirical normalization method is proposed, allowing superimposition of curves of viscosity loss vs. time across multiple possible geometries. The normalization procedure is applied to predict the extent of degradation during a field injection in which near-wellbore degradation occurs after degradation in surface facilities. We predict that degradation in the porous medium reaches a stable value after passing through approximately 6 mm of rock.
Finally, degradation is proposed as a tool to probe the molecular-weight distribution and to narrow the polydispersity of polymers, which can be used for maximizing both viscosifying power and injectivity simultaneously.
|File Size||855 KB||Number of Pages||16|
Al Hashmi, A. R., Al Maamari, R. S., Al Shabibi, I. S. et al. 2013. Rheology and Mechanical Degradation of High-Molecular-Weight Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide During Flow Through Capillaries. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 105 (May): 100–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2013.03.021.
Brakstad, K. and Rosenkilde, C. 2016. Modelling Viscosity and Mechanical Degradation of Polyacrylamide Solutions in Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179593-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179593-MS.
Buchholz, B. A., Zahn, J. M., Kenward, M. et al. 2004. Flow-Induced Chain Scission as a Physical Route to Narrowly Distributed, High Molar Mass Polymers. Polymer 45 (4): 1223–1234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2003.11.051.
Chauveteau, G. 1981. Molecular Interpretation of Several Different Properties of Flow of Coiled Polymer Solutions Through Porous Media in Oil Recovery Conditions. Presented at the SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 5–7 October. SPE-10060-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/10060-MS.
Chauveteau, G. and Kohler, N. 1984. Influence of Microgels in Polysaccharide Solutions on Their Flow Behavior Through Porous Media. SPE J. 24 (3): 361–368. SPE-9295-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/9295-PA.
Chow, A., Keller, A., Müller, A. J. et al. 1988. Entanglements in Polymer Solutions Under Elongational Flow: A Combined Study of Chain Stretching, Flow Velocimetry and Elongational Viscosity. Macromolecules 21 (1): 250–256. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00179a048.
Culter, J. D., Zakin, J. L., and Patterson, G. K. 1975. Mechanical Degradation of Dilute Solutions of High Polymers in Capillary Tube Flow. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 19 (12): 3235–3240. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1975.070191210.
De Gennes, P. G. 1974. Coil-Stretch Transition of Dilute Flexible Polymers Under Ultrahigh Velocity Gradients. J. Chem. Phys. 60 (12): 5030–5042. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1681018.
Dupas, A., Henaut, I., Argillier, J.-F. et al. 2012. Mechanical Degradation Onset of Polyethylene Oxide Used as a Hydrosoluble Model Polymer for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Oil Gas Sci. Tech. 67 (6): 931–940. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst/2012028.
Ghoniem, S., Chauveteau, G., Moan, M. et al. 1981. Mechanical Degradation of Semi-Dilute Polymer Solutions in Laminar Flows. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 59 (4): 450–454. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450590406.
Ghoniem, S. A.-A. 1985. Extensional Flow of Polymer Solutions Through Porous Media. Rheol. Acta 24 (6): 588–595. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01332592.
Henaut, I., Glenat, P., Cassar, C. et al. 2012. Mechanical Degradation Kinetics of Polymeric DRAs. Presented at the 8th North American Conference on Multiphase Technology, Banff, Canada, 20–22 June. BHR-2012-A004.
Hunkeler, D., Nguyen, T. Q., and Kausch, H. H. 1996a. Polymer Solutions Under Elongational Flow: 1. Birefringence Characterization of Transient and Stagnation Point Elongational Flows. Polymer 37 (19): 4257–4269. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(96)00290-X.
Hunkeler, D., Nguyen, T. Q., and Kausch, H. H. 1996b. Polymer Solutions Under Elongational Flow: 2. An Evaluation of Models of Polymer Dynamics for Transient and Stagnation Point Flows. Polymer 37 (19): 4271–4281. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(96)00187-5.
Jouenne, S., Klimenko, A., and Levitt, D. 2016. Tradeoffs Between Emulsion and Powder Polymers for EOR. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179631-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179631-MS.
Keller, A. and Odell, J. A. 1985. The Extensibility of Macromolecules in Solution; a New Focus for Macromolecular Science. Colloid Polym. Sci. 263 (3): 181–201. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01415506.
Levitt, D., Klimenko, A., Jouenne, S. et al. 2012. Design Challenges of Chemical EOR in High-Temperature High Salinity Carbonates. Presented at the SPE Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, 11–14 November. SPE-161633-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/161633-MS.
Maerker, J. M. 1975. Shear Degradation of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Solutions. SPE J. 15 (4): 311–322. SPE-5101-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5101-PA.
Maerker, J. M. 1976. Mechanical Degradation of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Solutions in Unconsolidated Porous Media. SPE J. 16 (4): 172–174. SPE-5672-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5672-PA.
Magueur, A., Moan, G., M., and Chauveteau, G. 1985. Effect of Successive Contractions and Expansions on the Apparent Viscosity of Dilute Polymer Solutions. Chem. Eng. Comm. 36 (1–6): 351–366. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986448508911265.
Martin, F. D. 1986. Mechanical Degradation of Polyacrylamide Solutions in Core Plugs From Several Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 1 (2): 139–150. SPE-12651-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/12651-PA.
Müller, A. J., Odell, J. A., and Carrington, S. 1992. Degradation of Semidilute Polymer Solutions in Elongational Flows. Polymer 33 (12): 2598–2604. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(92)91143-P.
Nghe, P., Tabeling, P., and Ajdari, A. 2010. Flow-Induced Polymer Degradation Probed by a High Throughput Microfluidic Set-up. J. Non-Newton. Fluid 165 (7–8): 313–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2010.01.006.
Nguyen, T. Q. and Kausch, H.-H. 1986. Mechanochemical Degradation of Polymer Solution in Capillary Flow: Laminar and Turbulent Regime. Chimia 40 (4): 129–135.
Nguyen, T. Q. and Kausch, H.-H. 1988. Chain Scission in Transient Extensional Flow Kinetics and Molecular Weight Dependence. J. Non-Newton. Fluid 30 (2–3): 125–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-0257(88)85020-1.
Nguyen, T. Q. and Kausch, H.-H. 1991. Influence of Nozzle Geometry on Polystyrene Degradation in Convergent Flow. Colloid Polym. Sci. 269 (11): 1099–1110. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00654117.
Noik, C. H., Delaplace, P. H., and Muller, G. 1995. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Polyacrylamide Solutions after Mechanical Degradation through a Porous Medium. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, San Antonio, Texas, 14–17 February. SPE-28954-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/28954-MS.
Odell, J. A. and Keller, A. 1986. Flow-Induced Chain Fracture of Isolated Linear Macromolecules in Solution. J. Polym. Sci. B 24 (9): 1889–1916. https://doi.org/10.1002/polb.1986.090240901.
Odell, J. A., Muller, A. J., Narh, K. A. et al. 1990. Degradation of Polymer Solutions in Extensional Flows. Macromolecules 23 (12): 3092–3103. https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00214a011.
Seright, R. S. 1983. The Effects of Mechanical Degradation and Viscoelastic Behavior on Injectivity of Polyacrylamide Solutions. SPE J. 23 (3): 475–485. SPE-9297-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/9297-PA.
Seright, R. S., Seheult, J. M., and Talashek, T. 2009. Injectivity Characteristics of EOR Polymers. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (5): 783–792. SPE-115142-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/115142-PA.
Southwick, J. G. and Manke, C. W. 1988. Molecular Degradation Injectivity and Elastic Properties of Polymer Solutions. SPE Res Eng 3 (4): 1193–1201. SPE-15652-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15652-PA.
Stavland, A., Asen, S. M., Mebratu, A. et al. 2016. Impact of Choke Valves on the IOR Polymer Flooding: Lessons Learned from Large Scale Tests. In Proc., IOR Norway 2016, Stavanger, Norway, 25–26 April, 18–22. IRIS.
Vanapalli, S. A., Ceccio, S. L., and Solomon, M. J. 2006. Universal Scaling for Polymer Chain Scission in Turbulence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 (45): 16660–16665. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0607933103.
Zaitoun, A., Makakou, P., Blin, B. et al. 2011. Shear Stability of EOR Polymers. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 11–13 April. SPE-141113-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/141113-MS.