Use of Nickel Nanoparticles for Promoting Aquathermolysis Reaction During Cyclic Steam Stimulation
- Siyuan Yi (University of Alberta) | Tayfun Babadagli (University of Alberta) | Huazhou Andy Li (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 145 - 156
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Aquathermolysis reaction, Cyclic steam stimulation, Heavy oil, Nickel Nanoparticle, Steam injection
- 12 in the last 30 days
- 348 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Late cycles of cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) are characterized by a decreasing heavy-oil recovery and an increasing water cut. Nickel nanoparticles can be used to promote aquathermolysis reactions between water and heavy oil in steam-injection processes, thereby increasing the recovery factor (RF). In this paper, detailed investigations were performed to determine the optimal operational parameters and answers to the following questions:
- What is the optimal concentration of nickel nanoparticles for promoting aquathermolysis under high steam temperature?
- Can we improve oil recovery at lower steam temperatures with the presence of nickel nanoparticles?
- What effect does the penetration depth of nickel nanoparticles have on the final oil recovery?
CSS experiments were conducted between temperatures of 150 and 220°C. Steam generated under these temperatures was injected into sandpacks saturated with Mexican heavy oil. Powder-form nickel nanoparticle was introduced into this process to boost the oil production. In an attempt to obtain the optimal concentration, different concentrations were tested. Next, oil sands without any nanoparticle additives were first added into the cylinder. Then, only one-third of the sandpack was mixed with nickel nanoparticles near the injection port. Experiments were executed to study the effects of temperature, nickel concentrations, and nanoparticle-penetration depth on the ultimate oil recovery and produced oil/water ratios after each cycle. Produced-oil quality and emulsion formation were evaluated with gas-chromatography (GC) analysis, viscosity measurements, saturates/asphaltenes/resins/aromatics (SARA) tests, and microscopic analysis of the effluents.
Experimental results show that the best concentration of nickel nanoparticles, which gives the highest ultimate oil RF, is 0.20 wt% of initial oil in place (IOIP) under 220°C, whereas the nickel concentration of 0.05 wt% provides the highest RFs at the early stages. A lower temperature of 150°C provides a much-lower RF than 220°C, which is mainly because of a lower level of aquathermolysis reactions at 150°C. By analyzing the compositions of produced oil and gas samples with GC and SARA tests, we confirm that the major reaction mechanism during the aquathermolysis reaction is the breakage of the carbon/sulfur (C/S) bond; the nickel nanoparticles can act as catalyst for the aquathermolysis reaction; and the catalytic effect becomes less remarkable from cycle to cycle. One run of the experiment to test the effect of particle-penetration depth revealed that the nickel nanoparticles distributed near the injection port greatly contributed to the ultimate RF.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Alvarez, J. and Han, S. 2013. Current Overview of Cyclic Steam Injection Process. J. Pet. Sci. Res. 2 (3): 116–127.
ASTM D2007-03, Standard Test Method for Characteristic Groups in Rubber Extender and Processing Oils and Other Petroleum-Derived Oils by the Clay-Gel Absorption Chromatographic Method. 2008. West Conshohocken, Penssylvania: ASTM International. https://doi.org/10.1520/D2007-03R08.
Clark, P. D. and Hyne, J. B. 1983. Steam-Oil Chemical Reactions: Mechanisms for the Aquathermolysis of Heavy Oils. AOSTRA J. Res. 1 (1): 15–20.
Clark, P. D., Clarke, R. A., Hyne, J. B. et al. 1990a. Studies on the Chemical Reactions of Heavy Oils Under Steam Stimulation Conditions. AOSTRA J. Res. 6 (1): 29–39.
Clark, P. D., Clarke, R. A., Hyne, J. B. et al. 1990b. Studies on the Effect of Metal Species on Oil Sands Undergoing Steam Treatments. AOSTRA J. Res. 6 (1): 53–64.
Eakin, B. E., Mitch, F. J., and Hanzlik, E. J. 1990. Oil Property and Composition Changes Caused by Water Injection. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 23–26 September. SPE-20738-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/20738-MS.
Fan, H., Liu, Y., Zhang, L. et al. 2002. The Study on Composition Changes of Heavy Oils During Steam Stimulation Process. Fuel 81 (13): 1733–1738. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(02)00100-X.
Fan, H., Zhang, Y., and Lin, Y. 2004. The Catalytic Effects of Minerals on Aquathermolysis of Heavy Oils. Fuel 83 (14–15): 2035–2039. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2004.04.010.
Farouq Ali, S. M. 1994. CSS - Canada’s Super Strategy for Oil Sands. J Can Pet Technol 33 (9): 16–19. PETSOC-94-09-01. https://doi.org/10.2118/94-09-01.
Farooqui, J., Babadagli, T., and Li, H. A. 2015. Improvement of the Recovery Factor Using Nano-Metal Particles at the Late Stages of Cyclic Steam Stimulation. Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Technical Conference, Calgary, 9–11 June. SPE-174478-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174478-MS.
Gu, H., Cheng, L., Huang, S. et al. 2015. Steam Injection for Heavy Oil Recovery: Modelling of Wellbore Heat Efficiency and Analysis of Steam Injection Performance. Energ. Convers. Manage. 97 (June): 166–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.03.057.
Hamedi Shokrlu, Y. and Babadagli, T. 2013. In-Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil/Bitumen During Steam Injection by Use of Metal Nanoparticles: A Study on In-Situ Catalysis and Catalyst Transportation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146661-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/146661-PA.
Hamedi Shokrlu, Y. and Babadagli, T. 2014a. Viscosity Reduction of Heavy Oil/Bitumen Using Micro- and Nano-Metal Particles During Aqueous and Non-Aqueous Thermal Applications. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 119 (July): 210–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.05.012.
Hamedi Shokrlu, Y. and Babadagli, T. 2014b. Kinetics of the In-Situ Upgrading of Heavy Oil by Nickel Nanoparticle Catalysts and Its Effect on Cyclic-Steam-Stimulation Recovery Factor. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (3): 355–364. SPE-170250-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170250-PA.
Hyne, J. B. 1986. Aquathermolysis: A Synopsis of Work on the Chemical Reactions Between Water (Steam) and Heavy Oil Sands During Simulated Steam Stimulation. AOSTRA Synopsis Report No. 50.
IP 142/96, Determination of Asphaltenes (Heptane Insolubles) in Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products. 1996. London: Energy Institute.
Moon, Y. K., Lee, J. K., Kim, J. G. et al. 2009. Sintering Kinetic Measurement of Nickel Nanoparticle Agglomerates by Electrical Mobility Classification. Curr. Appl. Phys. 9 (5): 928–932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cap.2008.06.018.
Pierre, C., Barre, L., Pina, A. et al. 2004. Composition and Heavy Oil Rheology. Oil Gas Sci. Tech. 59 (5): 489–501. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst:2004034.
Sheng, J. J. 2013. Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies. Houston: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Tjoeng, A. Y. and Loro, R. 2016. Viscosity Modelling of Pyrenees Crude Oil Emulsions. Presented at the Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 25–27 October. SPE-182326-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/182326-MS.