Modeling of Wormhole Propagation in Carbonate Rocks by Use of In-Situ-Gelled Acids
- Behzad Hosseinzadeh (University of Tehran) | Mohammad Bazargan (Sharif University of Technology) | Behzad Rostami (University of Tehran) | Shahab Ayatollahi (Sharif University of Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 2,032 - 2,048
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Acidizing, Diversion, Production Enhancement, Carbonate Reservoirs
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 288 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Diversion in heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs plays the most important role to the success of acidizing. Without the use of diversion, more acid preferentially flows into the high-permeability region and leaves the low-permeability region underreacted. But a clear understanding of diverting agents, such as polymer-based in-situ-gelled acids, can help uniformly stimulate the near-wellbore region. In this paper, we correct the rheological model that was developed by Ratnakar et al. (2013) according to experimental data from Gomaa and Nasr-El-Din (2010b) by considering shear-rate effect in a two-scale continuum model. It is found that the rheology parameters and shear rate are influential parameters in diversion. In addition, the amount of acid required for the breakthrough is found to be strongly dependent on rheology parameters and permeability in single-coreflood simulation. In our study, the viscosity of the spent acid is found to be the key parameter for diversion efficiency. We have constructed a mechanistic model similar to that in Panga et al. (2005) that simulates the acid injection in two dimensions. Then, we extended our simulation to dual-core systems with different permeability contrasts. The results show that there exists an intermediate injection rate that develops a wormhole in low-permeability core. This intermediate injection rate increases with increasing the permeability contrast. The results suggest that the dissolution pattern in the high-permeability core is dependent on the permeability contrast. It changes from wormhole to uniform shape when the permeability contrast increases.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||17|
Ahmed, W. A. F., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Moawad, T. et al. 2008. Effects of Crosslinker Type and Additives on the Performance of In-Situ Gelled Acids. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 13–15 February. SPE-112448-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/112448-MS.
Al-Ghamdi, A. H., Mahmoud, M. A., Wang, G. et al. 2014. Acid Diversion by Use of Viscoelastic Surfactants: The Effects of Flow Rate and Initial Permeability Contrast. SPE J. 19 (6): 1203–1216. SPE-142564-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/142564-PA.
Amro, M. M. 2006. Extended Matrix Acidizing Using Polymer-Acid Solutions. Presented at the SPE Technical Symposium of Saudi Arabia Section, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, 21–23 May. SPE-106360-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106360-MS.
Bazin, B. 2001. From Matrix Acidizing to Acid Fracturing: A Laboratory Evaluation of Acid/Rock Interactions. SPE Prod & Fac 16 (1): 22–29. SPE-66566-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/66566-PA.
Bernadiner, M. G., Thompson, K. E., and Fogler, H. S. 1992. Effect of Foams Used During Carbonate Acidizing. SPE Prod Eng 7 (4): 350–356. SPE-21035-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/21035-PA.
Chang, F., Qu, Q., and Frenier, W. 2001. A Novel Self-Diverting-Acid Developed for Matrix Stimulation of Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 13–16 February. SPE-65033-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/65033-MS.
Civan, F. 2015. Reservoir Formation Damage, second edition. Houston: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Conn, A. R., Gould, N. I., and Toint, P. L. 2000. Trust Region Methods, Vol. 1, first edition. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Daccord, G. 1987. Chemical Dissolution of a Porous Medium by a Reactive Fluid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 (5): 479–482. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.58.479.
Danckwerts, P. V. 1953. Continuous Flow Systems: Distribution of Residence Times. Chem Eng Sci 2 (1): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(53)80001-1.
Economides, M. J., Hill, A. D., Ehlig-Economides, C. et al. 2012. Petroleum Production Systems, second edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.
Etten, J., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 2015. The Combined Effect of Permeability and Pore Structure on Carbonate Matrix Acidizing. Presented at EUROPEC 2015, Madrid, Spain, 1–4 June. SPE-174314-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174314-MS.
Fogler, H. S. 1999. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, third edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Fredd, C. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1998. The Influence of Transport and Reaction on Wormhole Formation in Porous Media. AIChE J. 44 (9): 1933–1949. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690440902.
Fredd, C. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1999. Optimum Conditions for Wormhole Formation in Carbonate Porous Media: Influence of Transport and Reaction. SPE J. 4 (3): 196–205. SPE-56995-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/56995-PA.
Golfier, F., Zarcone, C., Bazin, B. et al. 2002. On the Ability of a Darcy-Scale Model to Capture Worm-hole Formation During the Dissolution of a Porous Medium. J. Fluid Mech. 457 (April): 213–254. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112002007735.
Gomaa, A. M. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2010a. New Insights into Wormhole Propagation in Carbonate Rocks Using Regular, Gelled and In-Situ Gelled Acids. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Conference and Exhibition, Tunis, Tunisia, 8–10 June. SPE-133303-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/133303-MS.
Gomaa, A. M. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2010b. New Insights Into the Viscosity of Polymer-Based In-Situ Gelled Acids. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (3): 367–375. SPE-121728-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/121728-PA.
Gomaa, A. M., Mahmoud, M. A., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2011. Laboratory Study of Diversion Using Polymer-Based In-Situ-Gelled Acids. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (3): 278–290. SPE-132535-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/132535-PA.
Halder, S., Nainwal, S. P., De, S. K. et al. 2004. In-situ Cross-linking Acid Diverting Agent (ISCADA): A New Solution to Stimulate Multi-layered Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 18–20 October. SPE-88591-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/88591-MS.
Hoefner, M. L. and Fogler, H. S. 1988. Pore Evolution and Channel Formation During Flow and Reaction in Porous Media. AIChE J. 34 (1): 45–54. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690340107.
Kalfayan, L. I. and Martin, A. N. 2009. The Art and Practice of Acid Placement and Diversion: History, Present State and Future. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124141-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124141-MS.
Kalia, N. and Glasbergen, G. 2010. Fluid Temperature as a Design Parameter in Carbonate Matrix Acidizing. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Conference and Exhibition, Tunis, Tunisia, 8–10 June. SPE-135654-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/135654-MS.
Liu, M., Zhang, S., Mou, J. et al. 2013a. Wormhole Propagation Behavior under Reservoir Condition in Carbonate Acidizing. Transport Porous Med. 96 (1): 203–220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-012-0084-z.
Liu, M., Zhang, S., Mou, J. et. al. 2013b. Diverting Mechanism of Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Self-Diverting Acid and Its Simulation. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 105 (May): 91–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2013.03.001.
Liu, P., Xue, H., Zhao, L. Q. et. al. 2015. Analysis and Simulation of Rheological Behavior and Diverting Mechanism of In Situ Self-Diverting Acid. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 132 (August): 39–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.04.042.
Lynn, J. D. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2001. A Core-Based Comparison of the Reaction Characteristics of Emulsified and In-Situ Gelled Acids in Low-Permeability, High-Temperature, Gas-Bearing Carbonates. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 13–16 February. SPE-65386-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/65386-MS.
Maheshwari, P., Maxey, J., and Balakotaiah, V. 2015. Reactive-Dissolution Modeling and Experimental Comparison of Wormhole Formation in Carbonates with Gelled and Emulsified Acids. SPE Prod & Oper 31 (2): 103–119. SPE-171731-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/171731-PA.
Maheshwari, P., Ratnakar, R. R., Kalia, N. et al. 2013. 3-D Simulation and Analysis of Reactive Dissolution and Wormhole Formation in Carbonate Rocks. Chem. Eng. Sci. 90 (7 March): 258–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.12.032.
Nasr-El-Din, H. A. and Samuel, M. M. 2007. Lessons Learned from Using Viscoelastic Surfactants in Well Stimulation. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (1): 112–120. SPE-90383-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/90383-PA.
Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Al-Mohammad, A. M., Al-Aamri, A. et al. 2008. Reaction of Gelled Acids With Calcite. SPE Prod & Oper 23 (3): 353–361. SPE-103979-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/103979-PA.
Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Chesson, J. B., Cawiezel, K. et al. 2006. Field Success in Carbonate Acid Diversion, Utilizing Laboratory Data Generated by Parallel Flow Testing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24–27 September. SPE-102828-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/102828-MS.
Panga, M. K. R., Ziauddin, M., and Balakotaiah, V. 2005. Two-Scale Continuum Model for Simulation of Wormholes in Carbonate Acidization. AIChE J. 51 (12): 3231–3248. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.10574.
Poyyara, R., Patnana, V., and Alam, M. 2014. Optimization of Acid Treatments by Assessing Diversion Strategies in Carbonate and Sandstone Formations. Int. J. Chem. Mol. Nucl. Mat. Metal. Eng. 8 (9): 979–984.
Rabie, A. I, Gomaa, A. M., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2010. Determination of Reaction Rate of In-situ Gelled Acid with Calcite Using the Rotating Disk Apparatus. Presented at the SPE Production and Operation Conference and Exhibition, Tunis, Tunisia, 8–10 June. SPE-133501-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/133501-MS.
Rabie, A. I., Gomaa, A. M., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2012. HCl/Formic In-Situ-Gelled Acids as Diverting Agents for Carbonate Acidizing. SPE Prod & Oper 27 (2): 170–184. SPE-140138-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140138-PA.
Ratnakar, R. R., Kalia, N., and Balakotaiah, V. 2013. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wormhole Formation in Carbonate Rocks with In Situ Cross-Linked Acids. Chem. Eng. Sci. 90 (17): 179–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2012.12.019.
Taylor, K. C. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2002. Coreflood Evaluation of In-Situ Gelled Acids. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 20–21 February. SPE-73707-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/73707-MS.
Taylor, K. C. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2003. Laboratory Evaluation of In-Situ Gelled Acids for Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE J. 8 (4): 426–434. SPE-87331-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/87331-PA.
Taylor, D., Kumar, P. S., Fu, D. et al. 2003. Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Self-Diverting Acid for Enhanced Stimulation in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 13–14 May. SPE-82263-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/82263-MS.
Wang, Y., Hill, A. D., and Schechter, R. S. 1993. The Optimum Injection Rate for Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Formations. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-26578-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/26578-MS.
Yu, M., Mahmoud, M. A., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2009. Quantitative Analysis of an Amphoteric Surfactant in Acidizing Fluids and Core Flood Effluent. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oil Field Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, 20–22 April. SPE-128047-PA. https://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128047-PA.
Zakaria, A. S. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2016. A Novel Polymer-Assisted Emulsified-Acid System Improves the Efficiency of Carbonate Matrix Acidizing. SPE J. 21 (3): 1061–1074. SPE-173711-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173711-PA.