Magnetic-Resonance Imaging of Fines Migration in Berea Sandstone
- Armin Afrough (University of New Brunswick) | Mohammad Sadegh Zamiri (University of New Brunswick) | Laura Romero-Zerón (University of New Brunswick) | Bruce J. Balcom (University of New Brunswick)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,385 - 1,392
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- fines migration, T2 distribution, Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG), Spin Echo - Single Point Imaging (SE-SPI), magnetic resonance (MR)
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 287 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Fines migration is a phenomenon of practical importance in the petroleum-production and drilling industry. The movement of clay particles, induced by incompatible aqueous-phase chemistry or high flow rate, obstructs pore throats downstream of the fluid flow, leading to permeability reductions that can be as large as two orders of magnitude. Magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) methods derived from the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method (Meiboom and Gill 1958) can map T2 distributions in porous rocks, hence showing the spatial variation of the pseudo-pore-size distribution.
In this work, the traditional water-shock experiment was used to mobilize clay particles in the aqueous phase flowing in Berea core plugs. Spin-echo single-point imaging (SE-SPI), a phase-encoding MRI method derived from the CPMG method, was used to determine spatially resolved T2 spectra of the samples, and therefore the pseudo-pore-size distributions.
The shift in the T2 spectra of the core inlet and outlet showed opposite trends. The pore-size distribution of the inlet and outlet, inferred from T2 distributions, were shifted to larger and smaller values, respectively. Therefore, the average pore size was increased at the inlet of the core and reduced at the outlet of the core. This MRI method provides a new analytical approach to screen reservoirs for potential fines-migration problems.
|File Size||692 KB||Number of Pages||8|
Al-Abduwani, F. A. H., Farajzadeh, R., and Van den Broek, W. M. G. T. 2005. Filtration of Micron-Sized Particles in Granular Media Revealed by X-ray Computed Tomography. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76 (10): 103704. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2103467.
Al-Duailej, Y. K., Kwak, H. T., Caliskan, S. et al. 2013. Wormhole Characterisation Using NMR. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Beijing, 26–28 March. IPTC-17063-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17063-MS.
Azari, M. and Leimkuhler, J. M. 1990. Formation Permeability Damage Induced by Completion Brines. J Pet Technol 42 (4): 486–492. SPE-17149-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/17149-PA.
Borgia, G. C., Brown, R. J. S., and Fantazzini, P. 1997. Different “Average” Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Times for Correlation with Fluid-Flow Permeability and Irreducible Water Saturation in Water-Saturated Sandstones. J. Appl. Phys. 82 (9): 4197–4204. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.366222.
Butler, J. P., Reeds, J. A., and Dawson, S. V. 1981. Estimating Solutions of First Kind Integral Equations with Nonnegative Constraints and Optimal Smoothing. SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 18 (3): 381–397. https://doi.org/10.1137/0718025.
Carroll, D. 1959. Ion Exchange in Clays and Other Minerals. Geol. Soc. Am. 70 (6): 749–779. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1959)70[749:IEICAO]2.0.CO;2.
Coates, G. R., Xiao, L., and Prammer, M. G. 1999. NMR Logging: Principles and Applications. Houston: Halliburton Energy Services.
Fordham, E. J., Horsfield, M. A., Hall, L. D. et al. 1993. Depth Filtration of Clay in Rock Cores Observed by One-Dimensional 1H NMR Imaging. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 156 (1): 253–255. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1993.1106.
Fordham, E. J., Roberts, T. P. L., Carpenter, T. A. et al. 1991. Dynamic NMR Imaging of Rapid Depth Filtration of Clay in Porous Media. AIChE J. 37 (12): 1900–1903. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690371214.
Heaton, N. J., Freedman, R., Karmonik, C. et al. 2002. Applications of a New-Generation NMR Wireline Logging Tool. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77400-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/77400-MS.
Horsfield, M. A., Fordham, E. J., Hall, C. et al. 1989. 1H NMR Imaging Studies of Filtration in Colloidal Suspensions. J. Magn. Reson. 81 (3): 593–596. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2364(89)90098-X.
Hürlimann, M. D. 1998. Effective Gradients in Porous Media Due to Susceptibility Differences. J. Magn. Reson. 131 (2): 232–240. https://doi.org/10.1006/jmre.1998.1364.
Khilar, K. C. and Fogler, H. S. 1983. Water Sensitivity of Sandstones. SPE J. 23 (1): 55–64. SPE-10103-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10103-PA.
Meiboom, S. and Gill, D. 1958. Modified Spin-Echo Method for Measuring Nuclear Relaxation Times. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 29 (8): 688–691. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1716296.
Minh, C. C., Jaffuel, F., Poirier, Y. et al. 2011. Quantitative Estimation of Formation Damage from Multi-Depth of Investigation NMR Logs. Presented at the SPWLA 52nd Annual Logging Symposium, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 14–18 May. SPWLA-2011-JJJ.
Muir, C. E. and Balcom, B. J. 2012. Pure Phase Encode Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluids in Porous Media. In Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy, Vol. 77, ed. G. A. Webb, Chap. 2, 81–113. Burlington, Massachusetts: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397020-6.00002-7.
Muir, C. E. and Balcom, B. J. 2013. A Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods for Fluid Content Imaging in Porous Media. Magn. Reson. Chem. 51 (6) 321–327. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrc.3947.
Nechifor, R. E., Romanenko, K., Marcia, F. et al. 2014. Spatially Resolved Measurements of Mean Spin-Spin Relaxation Time Constants. J. Magn. Reson. 239 (February): 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2013.11.012.
Nelson, P. H. 1994. Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Sedimentary Rocks. Log Analyst 35 (3): 38–62.
Petrov, O. V., Ersland, G., and Balcom, B. J. 2011. T2 Distribution Mapping Profiles with Phase-Encode MRI. J. Magn. Reson. 209 (1): 39–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2010.12.006.
Romanenko, K., Xiao, D., and Balcom, B. J. 2012. Velocity Field Measurements in Sedimentary Rock Cores by Magnetization Prepared 3D SPRITE. J. Magn. Reson. 223 (October): 120–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2012.08.004.
Sahimi, M., Gavalas, G. R., Tsotsis, T. T. 1990. Statistical and Continuum Models of Fluid-Solid Reactions in Porous Media. Chem. Eng. Sci. 45 (6): 1443–1502. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(90)80001-U.
Sen, P. N., Straley, C., Kenyon, W. E. et al. 1990. Surface-to-Volume Ratio, Charge Density, Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation, and Permeability in Clay-Bearing Sandstones. Geophysics 55 (1): 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442772.
Sharma, M. M. and Yortsos, Y. C. 1986. Permeability Impairment Due to Fines Migration in Sandstones. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–27 February. SPE-14819-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/14819-MS.
Sharma, M. M. and Yortsos, Y. C. 1987. Fines Migration in Porous Media. AIChE J. 33 (10): 1654–1662. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690331009.
Sharma, M. M., Chamoun, H., Sita Rama Sarma, D. S. H. et al. 1992. Factors Controlling the Hydrodynamic Detachment of Particles from Surfaces. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 149 (1): 121–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(92)90398-6.
Sigal, R. 2002. Coates and SDR Permeability: Two Variations on the Same Theme. Petrophysics 43 (1) 38–46. SPWLA-2002-v43n1a4.
Straley, C., Rossini, D., Schwartz, L. M. et al. 1994. Chemical Shift Imaging of Particle Filtration in Sandstone Cores. Magn. Reson. Imaging 12 (2): 313–315. https://doi.org/10.1016/0730-725X(94)91544-X.
Straley, C., Rossini, D., Schwartz, L. M. et al. 1995. Particle Filtration in Sandstone Cores: A Novel Application of Chemical Shift Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques. Log Analyst 36 (2): 42–51. SPWLA-1995-v36n2a3.
Tran, T. V., Civan, F., and Robb, I. D. 2010. Effect of Permeability Impairment by Suspended Particles on Invasion of Drilling Fluids. Presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 1–3 November. SPE-133724-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/133724-MS.
Valdya, R. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1992. Fines Migration and Formation Damage: Influence of pH and Ion Exchange. SPE Prod Eng 7 (4): 325–330. SPE-19413-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19413-PA.
van der Zwaag, C. H., Stallmach, F., Basan, P. B. et al. 1997. New Methodology to Investigate Formation Damage using Non-Destructive Analytical Tools. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 2–3 June. SPE-38161-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/38161-MS.
Vinegar, H. J. 1986. X-Ray CT and NMR Imaging of Rocks. J Pet Technol 38 (3): 257–259. SPE-15277-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15277-PA.