Water Blocks in Tight Formations: The Role of Matrix/Fracture Interaction in Hydrocarbon-Permeability Reduction and Its Implications in the Use of Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques
- Rafael A. Longoria (University of Texas at Austin) | Tianbo Liang (University of Texas at Austin) | Uyen T. Huynh (University of Texas at Austin) | Quoc P. Nguyen (University of Texas at Austin) | David A. DiCarlo (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,393 - 1,401
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- surfactants, Unconventional reservoirs, Water blocks
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 463 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Hydraulic fracturing is used to obtain economical rates from tight and unconventional formations by increasing the surface area of the reservoir within the flowing distance to a high-conductivity pathway. However, a significant fraction of the fracturing fluid is never recovered, and thus may reduce the hydrocarbon permeability near the fracture. Here, we experimentally mimic the water-invasion process during fracturing, and measure the effective permeability changes in a low-permeability core. Measurements of water flowback and effective permeability as a function of interfacial tension (IFT), flow rate, and shut-in time suggest that water is being held at the fracture face because of the capillary discontinuity (i.e., when the water leaves the matrix and enters a space with minimal capillary pressure). This effect arises from the capillary interaction between the matrix and the fracture, and is akin to the capillary end effect in coreflood experiments. The results show that this effect, although only a laboratory experimental artifact for conventional reservoirs, can be a significant source of effective hydrocarbon-permeability reduction by fracturing-fluid invasion into the formation in unconventional and tight reservoirs.
|File Size||770 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Abrams, A. and Vinegar, H. J. 1985. Impairment Mechanisms in Vicksburg Tight Gas Sands. Presented at the SPE/DOE Permeability Gas Reservoirs, Denver, 19–22 March. SPE-13883-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/13883-MS.
Bazin, B., Peysson, Y., Lamy, F. et al. 2010. In-Situ Water-Blocking Measurements and Interpretation Related to Fracturing Operations in Tight Gas Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (4): 431–437. SPE-121812-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/121812-PA.
Bennion, D. B., Thomas, F. B., Bietz, R. F. et al. 1996. Water and Hydrocarbon Phase Trapping in Porous Media-Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment. J Can Pet Technol 35 (10). PETSOC-96-10-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/96-10-02.
Bennion, D., Thomas, F., Imer, D. et al. 2000. Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs and Formation Damage—Tricks and Traps. Presented at the SPE/CERI Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 3–5 April. SPE-59753-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/59753-MS.
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C. et al. 2014. Imbibition and Water Blockage in Unconventional Reservoirs: Well-Management Implications During Flowback and Early Production. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (4): 497–506. SPE-167698-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Bostrom, N., Chertov, M., Pagels, M. et al. 2014. The Time-Dependent Permeability Damage Caused by Fracture Fluid. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–28 February. SPE-168140-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168140-MS.
Dehghanpour, H., Zubair, H. A., Chhabra, A. et al. 2012. Liquid Intake of Organic Shales. Energy Fuels 26 (9): 5750–5758. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef3009794.
Dehghanpour, H., Lan, Q., Saeed, Y. et al. 2013. Spontaneous Imbibition of Brine and Oil in Gas Shales: Effect of Water Adsorption and Resulting Microfractures. Energy Fuels 27 (6): 3039–3049. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef4002814.
Fakcharoenphol, P., Kurtoglu, B., Kazemi, H. et al. 2014. The Effect of Osmotic Pressure on Improve Oil Recovery From Fractured Shale Formations. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 1–3 April. SPE-168998-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168998-MS.
Hoffman, R. L. 1975. A Study of the Advancing Interface. I. Interface Shape in Liquid—Gas Systems. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 50 (2): 228–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(75)90225-8.
Howard, P., Mukhopadhyay, S., Moniaga, N. et al. 2010. Comparison of Flowback Aids: Understanding Their Capillary Pressure and Wetting Properties. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (3): 376–387. SPE-122307-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/122307-PA.
Huang, D. D. and Honarpour, M. M. 1998. Capillary End Effects in Coreflood Calculations. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 19 (1–2): 103–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(97)00040-5.
Huh, C. 1979. Interfacial Tensions and Solubilizing Ability of a Microemulsion Phase That Coexists With Oil and Brine. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71 (2): 408–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(79)90249-2.
Kamath, J., Meyer, R. F., and Nakagawa, F. M. 2001. Understanding Waterflood Residual Oil Saturation of Four Carbonate Rock Types. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October. SPE-71505-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/71505-MS.
Kamath, J. and Laroche, C. 2003. Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Gas Well Deliverability Loss Caused by Water Blocking. SPE J. 8 (1): 71–80. SPE-83659-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/83659-PA.
Kianinejad, A., Aminzadeh, B., Chen, X. et al. 2014. Three-Phase Relative Permeabilities as a Function of Flow History. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169083-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169083-MS.
Lake, L., Johns, R., Rossen, W. et al. 2015. Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery, Kindle edition. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Le, D., Hoang, H., and Mahadevan, J. 2012. Gas Recovery From Tight Sands: Impact of Capillarity. SPE J. 17 (4): 981–991. SPE-119585-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/119585-PA.
Liang, T., Longoria, R. A., Lu, J. et al. 2015. The Applicability of Surfactants on Enhancing the Productivity in Tight Formations. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July. SPE-178584-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/178584-MS.
Liang, T., Achour, S. H., Longoria, R. A. et al. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Surfactant Additives to Reduce Water Blocks After Hydraulic Fracturing for Low-Permeability Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179601-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179601-MS.
Longoria, R. A., Liang, T., Nguyen, Q. P. et al. 2015. When Less Flowback Is More: A Mechanism of Permeability Damage and Its Implications on the Application of EOR Techniques. SPE-178583-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/178583-MS.
Mahadevan, J. and Sharma, M. M. 2005. Factors Affecting Clean-up of Water-Blocks: A Laboratory Investigation. SPE J. 10 (3): 238–246. SPE-84216-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84216-PA.
McFann, G. J. and Johnston, K. P. 1993. Phase Behavior of Nonionic Surfactant/Oil/Water Systems Containing Light Alkanes. Langmuir 9 (11): 2942–2948. https://doi.org/10.1021/la00035a035.
Mikhail, S. Z. and Kimel, W. R. 1961. Densities and Viscosities of Methanol-Water Mixtures. J. Chem. Eng. Data 6 (4): 533–537. https://doi.org/10.1021/je60011a015.
Mirzaei Paiaman, A., Moghadasi, J., and Masihi, M. 2010. Formation Damage Through Aqueous Phase Trapping in Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Deep Gas Conference and Exhibition, Manama, Bahrain, 24–26 January. SPE-129637-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129637-MS.
Palmer, I., Moschovidis, Z., Schafer, A. et al. 2014. Case Histories From Fayettville Shale: SRV Sizes, Fracture Networks, Spacing, Aperture Widths, and Implications for Proppant. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 1–3 April. SPE-169015-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169015-MS.
Penny, G., Zelenev, A., Lett, N. et al. 2012. Nano Surfactant System Improves Post Frac Oil and Gas Recovery in Hydrocarbon Rich Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-154308-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154308-MS.
Rapoport, L. A. and Leas, W. J. 1953. Properties of Linear Waterfloods. J Pet Technol 5 (5): 139–148. SPE-213-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/213-G.
Rostami, A. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2014. Microemulsion vs. Surfactant-Assisted Gas Recovery in Low-Permeability Formations With Water Blockage. Presented at the SPE Western North American and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, Denver, 17–18 April. SPE-169582-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169582-MS.
Tannich, J. D. 1975. Liquid Removal From Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells. J Pet Technol 27 (11): 1309–1317. SPE-5113-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5113-PA.
Zelenev, A., Zhou, H., Ellena, L. et al. 2010. Microemulsion-Assisted Fluid Recovery and Improved Permeability to Gas in Shale Formations. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 10–12 February. SPE-127922-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/127922-MS.