Evaluation of Imbibition Oil Recovery in the Duvernay Formation
- Mahmood Reza Yassin (University of Alberta) | Hassan Dehghanpour (University of Alberta) | Momotaj Begum (University of Alberta) | Lindsay Dunn (Athabasca Oil Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 257 - 272
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Fracturing Fluid Formulation, Wettability, Imbibition Oil Recovery, Shale Oil
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 457 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
In this study, we evaluate the wettability of shale plugs from the Duvernay Formation, which is a self-sourced reservoir in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. We use reservoir oil and flowback water (brine) to conduct air/liquid contact-angle and air/liquid spontaneous-imbibition tests for wettability evaluation. We characterize the shale samples by measuring pressure-decay permeability, effective porosity, initial oil and water saturations, mineralogy, and total-organic-carbon (TOC) content, and by conducting rock-eval pyrolysis tests. We also conduct scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses on the shale samples to characterize the location and size of pores. After evaluation of wettability, we conduct soaking tests. First, we measure liquid/liquid contact angles for the droplets of the soaking fluids and reservoir oil equilibrated on the surface of the oil-saturated plugs. Then, we conduct soaking tests by immersing the oil-saturated plugs in different soaking fluids, and record the oil volume produced from spontaneous imbibition of the soaking fluids. The soaking fluids are characterized by measuring surface tension (ST), interfacial tension (IFT), viscosity, and pH. We analyze the results of soaking tests and investigate the controlling parameters affecting oil recovery factor (RF).
The results demonstrate that the shale samples have stronger wetting affinity toward oil compared with brine. The positive correlations of TOC content with effective porosity and pressure-decay permeability suggest that the majority of connected pores are within the organic matter. The strong oil-wetness of the shale samples can be explained by the abundance of organic porosity, verified by the SEM/EDS images. The results of liquid/liquid contact-angle tests show that the soaking fluid with lower IFT exhibits a stronger wetting affinity toward the shale. The results also show that oil RF is higher for the soaking fluids with lower IFT, which may be caused by wettability alteration. In addition, comparing the results of air/brine imbibition with those of the soaking tests indicates that adding nonionic surfactant to the soaking fluid may alter the wettability of hydrophobic organic pores toward less-oil-wet conditions, leading to the displacement of oil from organic pores.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Alvarez, J. O. and Schechter, D. S. 2017. Wettability Alteration and Spontaneous Imbibition in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs by Surfactant Additives. SPE Res Eval & Eng 20 (1): 107–117. SPE-177057-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/177057-PA.
Alvarez, J. O., Saputra, I. W. R., and Schechter, D. S. 2017. Potential of Improving Oil Recovery with Surfactant Additives to Completion Fluids for the Bakken. Energy Fuels 31 (6): 5982–5994. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b00573.
Anderson, W. 1986. Wettability Literature Survey—Part 2: Wettability Measurement. J Pet Technol 38 (11): 1246–1262. SPE-13933-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13933-PA.
Barrett, E. P., Joyner, L. G., and Halenda, P. P. 1951. The Determination of Pore Volume and Area Distributions in Porous Substances. I. Computations from Nitrogen Isotherms. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73 (1): 373–380. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01145a126.
Baskin, D. K. 1997. Atomic H/C Ratio of Kerogen as an Estimate of Thermal. AAPG Bull. 81 (9): 1437–1450.
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C. et al. 2014. Imbibition and Water Blockage in Unconventional Reservoirs: Well-Management Implications During Flowback and Early Production. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (4): 497–506. SPE-167698-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Cao, Q. and Zhou, W. 2015. Characteristic and Controlling Factors of Organic Pores in Continental Shale Gas Reservoir of Chang 7th of Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin. Acta Geol. Sin.-Engl. 89 (S1): 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.12302_1.
Chen, H. L., Lucas, L. R., Nogaret, L. A. D. et al. 2001. Laboratory Monitoring of Surfactant Imbibition with Computerized Tomography. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (1): 16–25. SPE-69197-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/69197-PA.
Chenevert, M. E. 1970. Shale Alteration by Water Adsorption. J Pet Technol 22 (9): 1141–1148. SPE-2401-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2401-PA.
Cheng, Y. 2012. Impact of Water Dynamics in Fractures on the Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Gas-Shale Reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 51 (2): 143–151. SPE-127863-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/127863-PA.
Craig, V. S. J., Ninham, B. W., and Pashley, R. M. 1993. The Effect of Electrolytes on Bubble Coalescence in Water. J. Phys. Chem. 97 (39): 10192–10197. https://doi.org/10.1021/j100141a047.
Dehghanpour, H., Zubair, H. A., Chhabra, A. et al. 2012. Liquid Intake of Organic Shales. Energy Fuels 26 (9): 5750–5758. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef3009794.
Delshad, M., Bhuyan, D., Pope, G. A. et al. 1986. Effect of Capillary Number on the Residual Saturation of a Three-Phase Micellar Solution. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-14911-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/14911-MS.
Dunn, L. A. and Humenjuk, J. 2014. The Duvernay Formation: Integrating Sedimentology, Sequence Stratigraphy and Geophysics to Identify Sweet Spots in a Liquids-Rich Shale Play, Kaybob Alberta. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. URTEC-1922713-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1922713.
Fothergill, P., Boskovic, D., Schoellkopf, N. et al. 2014. Regional Modelling of the Late Devonian Duvernay Formation, Western Alberta, Canada. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. URTEC-1923935-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1923935.
Ghanbari, E. and Dehghanpour, H. 2016. The Fate of Fracturing Water: A Field and Simulation Study. Fuel 163 (1 January): 282–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.09.040.
Gonzalez, J., Lewis, R., Hemingway, J. et al. 2013. Determination of Formation Organic Carbon Content Using a New Neutron-Induced Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Service that Directly Measures Carbon. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 12–14 August. https://doi.org/10.1190/urtec2013-112.
Handwerger, D. A., Keller, J., and Vaughn, K. 2011. Improved Petrophysical Core Measurements on Tight Shale Reservoirs Using Retort and Crushed Samples. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-147456-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/147456-MS.
Handwerger, D. A., Willberg, D. M., Pagels, M. et al. 2012. Reconciling Retort versus Dean Stark Measurements on Tight Shales. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-159976-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/159976-MS.
Handy, L. L. 1960. Determination of Effective Capillary Pressures for Porous Media from Imbibition Data. SPE-1361-G.
Hensen, E. J. M. and Smit, B. 2002. Why Clays Swell. J. Phys. Chem. B 106 (49): 12664–12667. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0264883.
Hunt, M. J. 1979. Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology. San Francisco, California: WH Freeman and Company.
Javaheri, A., Dehghanpour, H., and Wood, J. M. 2017. Tight Rock Wettability and its Relationship to Other Petrophysical Properties: A Montney Case Study. J. Earth Sci. 28 (2): 381–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-017-0725-9.
Jones, M., Stratton, J., Newton, R. et al. 2016. Case Study: Successful Applications of Weak Emulsifying Surfactants in the Wolfcamp Formation of Reagan County, TX. Presented at the SPE Liquids-Rich Basins Conference-North America, Midland, Texas, 21–22 September. SPE-181771-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/181771-MS.
Lake, L. W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Lan, Q., Yassin, M. R., Habibi, A. et al. 2015. Relative Permeability of Unconventional Rocks with Dual-Wettability Pore-Network. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July. URTEC-2153642-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2153642.
Laplace, P.-S. 1805. Treatise on Celestial Mechanics (Traité de Mécanique Céleste). Paris: De l’imprimerie de Crapelet.
Loucks, R. G., Reed, R. M., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2009. Morphology, Genesis, and Distribution of Nanometer-Scale Pores in Siliceous Mudstones of the Mississippian Barnett Shale. J. Sediment. Res. 79 (12): 848–861. https://doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2009.092.
Mirchi, V., Saraji, S., Goual, L. et al. 2015. Dynamic Interfacial Tension and Wettability of Shale in the Presence of Surfactants at Reservoir Conditions. Fuel 148 (15 May): 127–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.01.077.
Mitchell, A. G., Hazell, L. B., and Webb, K. J. 1990. Wettability Determination: Pore Surface Analysis. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 23–26 September. SPE-20505-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/20505-MS.
Montgomery, C. 2013. Fracturing Fluids. Presented at the ISRM International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, 20–22 May. ISRM-ICHF-2013-035.
Morrow, N. R. 1990. Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery. J Pet Technol 42 (12): 1476–1484. SPE-21621-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/21621-PA.
Munson, E. O. 2015. Reservoir Characterization of the Duvernay Formation, Alberta: A Pore- to Basin-Scale Investigation. PhD dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (September 2015).
Neog, A. and Schechter, D. S. 2016. Investigation of Surfactant Induced Wettability Alteration in Wolfcamp Shale for Hydraulic Fracturing and EOR Applications. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179600-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179600-MS.
Nguyen, D., Wang, D., Oladapo, A. et al. 2014. Evaluation of Surfactants for Oil Recovery Potential in Shale Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169085-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169085-MS.
Odusina, E. O., Sondergeld, C. H., and Rai, C. S. 2011. NMR Study of Shale Wettability. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 15–17 November. SPE-147371-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/147371-MS.
Peters, E. J. 2012. Advanced Petrophysics: Dispersion, Interfacial Phenomena, Vol. 2. Austin, Texas: Greenleaf Book Group.
Qi, Z., Han, M., Fuseni, A. et al. 2016. Laboratory Study on Surfactant Induced Spontaneous Imbibition for Carbonate Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 25–27 October. SPE-182322-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/182322-MS.
Raquejo, A. G., Gray, N. R., Freund, H. et al. 1992. Maturation of Petroleum Source Rocks. 1. Changes in Kerogen Structure and Composition Associated with Hydrocarbon Generation. Energy Fuels 6 (2): 203–214. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef00032a015.
Schechter, D. S., Zhou, D., and Orr, F. M. 1994. Low IFT drainage and imbibition. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 11 (4): 283–300.
Selley, R. C. and Sonnenberg, S. A. 2014. Elements of Petroleum Geology. San Diego, California: Academic Press.
Standnes, D. C. and Austad, T. 2000. Wettability Alteration in Chalk: 1. Preparation of Core Material and Oil Properties. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 28 (3): 111–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00083-8.
Stoakes, F. A. 1980. Nature and Control of Shale Basin Fill and its Effect on Reef Growth and Termination: Upper Devonian Duvernay and Ireton Formations of Alberta, Canada. Bull. Can. Petrol. Geol. 28 (3): 345–410.
Sulucarnain, I. D., Sondergeld, C. H., and Rai, C. S. 2012. An NMR Study of Shale Wettability and Effective Surface Relaxivity. Presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 30 October–1 November. SPE-162236-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/162236-MS.
Switzer, S., Holland, W., Christie, D. et al. 1994. Devonian Woodbend-Winterburn Strata of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. In Geological Atlas of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, ed. G. D. Mossop and I. Shetsen, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists and Alberta Research Council.
Van Krevelen, D. W. 1950. Graphical-Statistical Method for the Study of Structure and Reaction Processes of Coal. Fuel 29: 269–284.
Viksund, B. G., Morrow, N. R., Ma, S. et al. 1998. Initial Water Saturation and Oil Recovery from Chalk and Sandstone by Spontaneous Imbibition. Oral presentation given at the 1998 International Symposium of Society of Core Analysts, The Hague, 14–16 September.
Wang, D., Butler, R., Zhang, J. et al. 2012. Wettability Survey in Bakken Shale With Surfactant-Formulation Imbibition. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (6): 695–705. SPE-153853-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/153853-PA.
Wang, L., Fu, Y., Li, J. et al. 2017. Experimental Study on the Wettability of Longmaxi Gas Shale from Jiaoshiba Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 151 (March): 488–495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.01.036.
Wang, Q., Chen, X., Jha, A. N. et al. 2014. Natural Gas from Shale Formation—The Evolution, Evidences and Challenges of Shale Gas Revolution in United States. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev. 30 (February): 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.08.065.
Weissenborn, P. K. and Pugh, R. J. 1996. Surface Tension of Aqueous Solutions of Electrolytes: Relationship with Ion Hydration, Oxygen Solubility, and Bubble Coalescence. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 184 (2): 550–563. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1996.0651.
Yarveicy, H. and Haghtalab, A. 2017. Effect of Amphoteric Surfactant on Phase Behavior of Hydrocarbon-Electrolyte-Water System—An Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. (published online 24 May 2017). https://doi.org/10.1080/01932691.2017.1332525.
Yassin, M. R., Ayatollahi, S., Rostami, B. et al. 2015. Micro-Emulsion Phase Behavior of a Cationic Surfactant at Intermediate Interfacial Tension in Sandstone and Carbonate Rocks. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 137 (1): 012905.
Yassin, M. R., Begum, M., and Dehghanpour, H. 2017. Organic Shale Wettability and Its Relationship to Other Petrophysical Properties: A Duvernay Case Study. Int. J. Coal Geol. 169 (2 January): 74–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2016.11.015.
Yassin, M. R., Dehghanpour, H., Wood, J. et al. 2016. A Theory for Relative Permeability of Unconventional Rocks With Dual-Wettability Pore Network. SPE J. 21 (6): 1970–1980. SPE-178549-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/178549-PA.
Young, T. 1805. An Essay on the Cohesion of Fluids. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 95: 65–87. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1805.0005.
Yue, Z., Fu, Q., Lang, N. et al. 2014. Liquid Scale Inhibitors for Metallic-Crosslinked Gel Fracturing Systems. Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Scale Conference and Exhibition, Aberdeen, 14–15 May. SPE-169806-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169806-MS.
Zhou, X., Morrow, N. R., and Ma, S. 2000. Interrelationship of Wettability, Initial Water Saturation, Aging Time, and Oil Recovery by Spontaneous Imbibition and Waterflooding. SPE J. 5 (2): 199–207. SPE-62507-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/62507-PA.