Quantification of Sand Production Using a Pressure-Gradient-Based Sand-Failure Criterion
- Zhaoqi Fan (University of Regina) | Daoyong Yang (University of Regina) | Xiaoli Li (University of Kansas)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 988 - 1,001
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- wormhole growth and propagation, pressure gradient, CHOPS, reservoir characterization, sand failure criterion
- 9 in the last 30 days
- 275 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Cold heavy-oil production with sand (CHOPS) has been one of the major recovery processes for developing unconsolidated heavy-oil reservoirs by taking advantage of sand production and foamy-oil flow. However, effective characterization and accurate prediction of sand production is still a challenge. In this work, a pressure-gradient-based sand-failure criterion is proposed for quantifying sand production and characterizing wormhole propagation. The proposed sand-failure criterion was initially developed at the pore-scale level, while a pseudointeraction force between two neighboring sand grains was proposed to implicitly represent the potential contributions of cementation and geomechanical stresses to the fluidization of sand. The criterion was then extended to a grid scale within a wormhole because the pressure gradient is constant at either a pore scale or a grid scale. With the bottomhole pressure being an input constraint, the proposed sand-failure criterion was validated with good agreement by reproducing production profiles and wormhole propagation from laboratory experiments and a CHOPS well in the Cold Lake Oil Sands Area. This was a confirmation that the proposed sand-failure criterion can be used to characterize the sand production in a CHOPS process.
|File Size||977 KB||Number of Pages||14|
Bachrach, R. and Avseth, P. 2008. Rock Physics Modeling of Unconsolidated Sands: Accounting for Nonuniform Contacts and Heterogeneous Stress Fields in the EffectiveMedia Approximation With Applications to Hydrocarbon Exploration. Geophysics 73 (6): 197–209. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2985821.
Bondino, I., McDougall, S., and Hamon, G. 2011. Pore-Scale Modelling of the Effect of Viscous Pressure Gradients During Heavy Oil Depletion Experiments. J Can Pet Technol 50 (2): 45–55. SPE-144467-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/144467-PA.
Bratli, R. and Risnes, R. 1981. Stability and Failure of Sand Arches. SPE J. 21 (2): 236–248. SPE-8427-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/8427-PA.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). 2014. CMG STARS Thermal and Advanced Processes Simulator. Calgary: Computer Modelling Group, Ltd.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). 2014. CMG WinProp Fluid Property Characterization Tool. Calgary: Computer Modelling Group, Ltd.
Du, Z., Jiang, W., and Chen, Z. 2009. A New Integrated Model To Simulate the Disturbed Zone in CHOPS: Spread and Erosion. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 4–8 April. SPE-119587-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/119587-MS.
Dullien, F. A. L. 1992. Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure, second edition. San Diego, California: Academic Press.
Dusseault, M. 2002. CHOPS: Cold Heavy Oil Production With Sand in the Canadian Heavy Oil Industry. Report, Alberta Department of Energy, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (March 2002).
Fan, Z. and Yang, D. 2016. Characterization of Wormhole Growth and Its Applications for CHOPS Wells Using History Matching. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179617-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179617-MS.
Fan, Z., Yang, D., and Li, X. 2017. Determination of Three-Phase Relative Permeability in CHOPS Processes by Use of an Improved Ensemble Smoother. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, 8–10 May. SPE-186080-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/186080-MS.
Fjær, E., Holt, R., Horsrud, P. et al. 2008. Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics, second edition. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Gassmann, F. 1951. Elastic Wave Through a Packing of Spheres. Geophysics 16 (4): 673–685. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1437718.
Hall, C. and Harrisberger, W. 1970. Stability of Sand Arches: A Key to Sand Control. J Pet Technol 22 (7): 821–829. SPE-2399-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2399-PA.
Han, G., Bruno, M., and Dusseault, M. B. 2007. How Much Oil You Can Get From CHOPS. J Can Pet Technol 46 (4): 24–32. PETSOC-07-04-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/07-04-02.
Han, G., Dusseault, M. B., and Cook, J. 2002. Quantifying Rock Capillary Strength Behavior in Unconsolidated Sandstones. Presented at the SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference, Irving, Texas, 20–23 October. SPE-78170-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/78170-MS.
Huang, W., Marcum, B., Chase, M. et al. 1998. Cold Production of Heavy Oil From Horizontal Wells in the Frog Lake Field. SPE J. 6 (1): 551–555. SPE-52636-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/52636-PA.
IHS Markit. 2015. AccuMap, A Mapping, Data Management and Analysis Software. Calgary: IHS Markit.
Istchenko, C. M. and Gates, I. D. 2012. The Well-Wormhole Model of CHOPS: History Match and Validation. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, 12–14 June. SPE-157795-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/157795-MS.
Istchenko, C. M. and Gates, I. D. 2014. Well/Wormhole Model of Cold Heavy-Oil Production With Sand. SPE J. 19 (2): 260–269. SPE-150633-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/150633-PA.
James, S., Lee, C., Howard, P. et al. 2000. Interaction Between Growing Channels in Proppant Packs: Length and Number of Channels. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage, Lafayette, Louisiana, 23–24 February. SPE-58756-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/58756-MS.
Kraus, W. P., McCaffrey, W. J., and Boyd, G. W. 1993. Pseudo-Bubble Point Model for Foamy Oils. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 9–12 May. PETSOC-93-45. https://doi.org/10.2118/93-45.
Labuz, J. F. and Zang, A. 2012. Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 45 (6): 975–979. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-012-0281-7.
Liu, X. and Zhao, G. 2005. A Fractal Wormhole Model for Cold Heavy Oil Production. J Can Pet Technol 44 (9): 31–36. PETSOC-05-09-03. https://doi.org/10.2118/05-09-03.
Loughead, D. and Saltularoglu, M. 1992. Lloydminster Heavy Oil Production: Why so Unusual? Oral presentation given at the 9th Annual Canadian Heavy Oil Association Heavy Oil and Oil Sands Technology Symposium, Calgary, 11 March.
Maini, B. B. 2001. Foamy-Oil Flow. J Pet Technol 53 (10): 54–64. SPE-68885-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/68885-JPT.
Maini, B. B., Sarma, H. K., and George, A. E. 1993. Significance of Foamy-Oil Behaviour in Primary Production of Heavy Oil. J Can Pet Technol 32 (9): 50–54. PETSOC-93-09-07. https://doi.org/10.2118/93-09-07.
Mavko, G., Mukerji, T., and Dvorkin, J. 1998. The Rock Physics Handbook: Tool for Seismic Analysis in Porous Media. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Meza Diaz, B., Tremblay, B., and Doan, Q. 2003. Mechanisms of Sand Production Through Horizontal Well Slots in Primary Production. J Can Pet Technol 42 (10): 36–46. PETSOC-03-10-04. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-10-04.
Meza Diaz, B., Sawatzky, R., and Kuru, E. 2010. Sand on Demand for Horizontal Wells: Tracking Behaviour With the CT Scanner. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-134493-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/134493-MS.
Meza Diaz, B. I., Sawatzky, R., and Kuru, E. 2012. Sand on Demand: A Laboratory Investigation on Improving Productivity in Horizontal Wells Under Heavy-Oil Primary Production–Part II. SPE J. 17 (4): 1–12. SPE-133500-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/133500-PA.
Miller, W. 1994. Sand Flow Mechanisms at Well Casing Perforations. Master’s thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Nouri, A., Vaziri, H., Kuru, E. et al. 2006a. Comparison of Two Sanding Criteria in Physical and Numerical Modeling of Sand Production. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 50 (1): 55–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2005.10.003.
Nouri, A., Vaziri, H., Belhaj, A. et al. 2006b. Sand-Production Prediction: A New Set of Criteria for Modeling Based on Large-Scale Transient Experiments and Numerical Investigation. SPE J. 11 (2): 227–237. SPE-90273-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/90273-PA.
Norris, A. N. and Johnson, D. L. 1997. Nonlinear Elasticity of Granular Media. J. Appl. Mech. 64 (1): 39–49. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2787292.
Paul, B. 1961. A Modification of the Coulomb-Mohr Theory of Fracture. J. Appl. Mech. 28 (2): 259–268. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3641665.
Rivero, J. A., Coskuner, G., Asghari, K. et al. 2010. Modeling CHOPS Using a Coupled Flow-Geomechanics Simulator With Nonequilibrium Foamy-Oil Reactions: A Multiwell History Matching Study. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-135490-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/135490-MS.
Sanyal, T. and Al-Sammak, I. 2011. Analysis of the First CHOPS Pilot for Heavy Oil Production in Kuwait. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 15–17 November. SPE-148966-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/148966-MS.
Sawatzky, R. P., Lillico, D. A., London, M. J. et al. 2002. Tracking Cold Production Footprints. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 11–13 June. PETSOC-2002-086. https://doi.org/10.2118/2002-086.
Sharifi Haddad, A. and Gates, I. 2015. Modeling of Cold Heavy Oil Production With Sand (CHOPS) Using a Fluidized Sand Algorithm. Fuel 158 (15 October): 937–947. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.06.032.
Shi, Y. and Yang, D. 2017a. Experimental and Theoretical Quantification of Nonequilibrium Phase Behaviour and Physical Properties of Foamy Oil Under Reservoir Conditions. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 139 (6): 062902-1–062902-11. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4036960.
Shi, Y. and Yang, D. 2017b. Quantification of a Single Gas Bubble Growth in Solvent(s)–CO2–Heavy Oil Systems With Consideration of Multicomponent Diffusion Under Nonequilibrium Conditions. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 139 (2): 022908-1–022908-11. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4035150.
Shi, Y. and Yang, D. 2018. Quantification of Gas Exsolution and Mass Transfer of Foamy Oil in Bulk Phase Under Solution Gas Drive Conditions. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Garden Grove, California, 22–26 April. SPE-190088-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/190088-MS.
Shi, Y., Li, X., and Yang, D. 2016. Nonequilibrium Phase Behaviour of Alkane Solvent(s)–CO2–Heavy Oil Systems Under Reservoir Conditions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 55 (10): 2860–2871. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.5b04831.
Shokri, R. A. and Babadagli, T. 2012. An Approach to Model CHOPS (Cold Heavy Oil Production With Sand) and Post-CHOPS Applications. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-159437-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/159437-MS.
Smith, G. E. 1988. Fluid Flow and Sand Production in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs Under Solution-Gas Drive. SPE Prod Eng 3 (2): 169–180. SPE-15094-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15094-PA.
Tan, T., Slevinsky, R., and Jonasson, H. 2005. A New Methodology for Modelling of Sand Wormholes in Field Scale Thermal Simulation. J Can Pet Technol 44 (4): 16–21. PETSOC-05-04-01. https://doi.org/10.2118/05-04-01.
Tang, G.-Q. and Firoozabadi, A. 2003. Gas- and Liquid-Phase Relative Permeabilities for Cold Production From Heavy-Oil Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 6 (2): 70–80. SPE-83667-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/83667-PA.
Tremblay, B. 2005. Modelling of Sand Transport ThroughWormholes. J Can Pet Technol 44 (4): 51–58. PETSOC-05-04-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/05-04-06.
Tremblay, B. 2009. Cold Flow: A Multi-Well Cold Production (CHOPS) Model. J Can Pet Technol 48 (2): 22–28. PETSOC-09-02-22. https://doi.org/10.2118/09-02-22.
Tremblay, B. and Oldakowski, K. 2002. Wormhole Growth and Interaction in a Large Sand Pack. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 34 (1–4): 13–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(02)00150-X.
Tremblay, B. and Oldakowski, K. 2003. Modeling of Wormhole Growth in Cold Production. Transport Porous Med. 53 (2): 197–214. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024017622009.
Tremblay, B., Sedgwick, G., and Forshner, K. 1997. Simulation of Cold Production in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs: Wormhole Dynamics. SPE Res Eng 12 (2): 110–117. SPE-35387-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/35387-PA.
Tremblay, B., Sedgwick, G., and Forshner, K. 1998. Modelling of Sand Production From Wells on Primary Recovery. J Can Pet Technol 37 (3): 41–50. PETSOC-98-03-03. https://doi.org/10.2118/98-03-03.
Tremblay, B., Sedgwick, G., and Vu, D. 1999. CT Imaging of Wormhole Growth Under Solution-Gas Drive. SPE Res Eval & Eng 2 (1): 37–45. SPE-54658-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/54658-PA.
Vanderheyden, B., Jayaraman, B., Ma, X. et al. 2013. Multiscale Simulation of CHOPS Wormhole Networks. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 18–20 February. SPE-163603-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163603-MS.
Wang, Y. and Chen, C. Z. 2004. Simulating Cold Heavy Oil Production With Sand by Reservoir-Wormhole Model. J Can Pet Technol 43 (4): 39–44. PETSOC-04-04-03. https://doi.org/10.2118/04-04-03.
Wong, R. 2003. Sand Production in Oil Sand Under Heavy Oil Foamy Flow. J Can Pet Technol 42 (3): 56–61. PETSOC-03-03-06. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-03-06.
Wong, R. C. K., Polikar, M., Redford, D. A. et al. 1994. Oil Sand Strength Parameters at Low Effective Stresses: Its Effects on Sand Production. J Can Pet Technol 33 (5): 44–50. PETSOC-94-05-04. https://doi.org/10.2118/94-05-04.
Yim, K., Dusseault, M. B., and Zhang, L. 1994. Experimental Study of Sand Production Processes Near an Orifice. Presented at Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands, 29–31 August. SPE-28068-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/28068-MS.
Yuan, J.-Y., Babchin, A., and Tremblay, B. 2000. Modeling Wormhole Flow in Cold Production. J Can Pet Technol 39 (4): 40–44. PETSOC-00-04-02. https://doi.org/10.2118/00-04-02.
Yuan, J.-Y., Tremblay, B., and Babchin, A. 1999. A Wormhole Network Model of Cold Production in Heavy Oil. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations/Heavy Oil Symposium, Bakersfield, California, 17–19 March. SPE-54097-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/54097-MS.
Zhang, L. and Dusseault, M. B. 2004. Sand-Production Simulation in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (6): 399–407. SPE-89037-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/89037-PA.