Effect of Ferric Oxide Nanoparticles on the Properties of Filter Cake Formed by Calcium Bentonite-Based Drilling Muds
- Omar Mahmoud (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University) | Zisis Vryzas (Texas A&M University at Qatar) | Vassilios Kelessidis (Texas A&M University at Qatar)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 363 - 376
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- filter cake, water based drilling fluids, nanoparticles
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 256 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
During the past few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have been investigated as additives to address the challenges of drilling fluids and have shown potential for application. The present work focuses on introducing and investigating a calcium (Ca) bentonite-based drilling fluid with ferric oxide (Fe2O3) NPs.
Generating efficient filter cake is an important property of the drilling fluid and can affect the success of the whole drilling operation. This study aims at characterizing the filter cake produced by Ca bentonite-based drilling fluid modified using Fe2O3 NPs. Computed-tomography (CT) scan and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were used for filter-cake characterization. The effects of NP concentration and filtration conditions on the filter-cake properties were investigated. A high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) American Petroleum Institute (API) filter press was used to perform static and dynamic filtrations. Indiana limestone disks were used as filter media to simulate formation behavior.
The modified Fe2O3 NPs/Ca bentonite fluid showed improved filter-cake and filtration properties in the presence of polymers and other additives. A concentration of less than 1 wt% of NPs is preferred for generating a good-quality filter cake. The best characteristics were obtained when using an NP concentration of 0.3 to 0.5 wt%. The NPs/Ca bentonite-based drilling fluid can withstand conditions up to 500 psi and 350°F and generate filter-cake properties of 0.151-in. thickness, 6.9-cm3/30-min filtrate volume, and 0.449-md permeability. Fe2O3 NPs improved the filter-cake properties under both static and dynamic conditions. SEM-EDS showed a smoother/less-porous filter-cake morphology with less agglomeration when using NPs at optimal concentrations, which confirms that the NPs play a key role in forming a better filter-cake structure.
The present work provides an experimental evaluation of the filter cake generated by modified NPs/Ca bentonite-based drilling fluid at downhole conditions, which is an extension of our previous work using a simple NPs/Ca bentonite suspension (Mahmoud et al. 2018). The improved properties of the filter cake confirmed the effectiveness of using Ca bentonite modified with Fe2O3 NPs to formulate a drilling fluid that can effectively be used for drilling practices.
|File Size||1014 KB||Number of Pages||14|
Abdo, J. and Haneef, M. D. 2013. Clay Nanoparticles Modified Drilling Fluids for Drilling of Deep Hydrocarbon Wells. Appl. Clay Sci. 86 (December): 76–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2013.10.017.
Abrams, A. 1977. Mud Design to Minimize Rock Impairment Due to Particle Invasion. J Pet Technol 29 (5): 586–592. SPE-5713-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5713-PA.
Akin, S. and Kovscek, A. R. 2003. Computed Tomography in Petroleum Engineering Research. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Pub. 215 (1 January): 23–38. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.215.01.03.
Al-Abduwani, F. A. H., Bedrikovesty, P., Farajzadeh, R. et al. 2005. External Filter Cake Erosion: Mathematical Model and Experimental Study. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 25–27 May. SPE-94635-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/94635-MS.
Amaefule, J. O., Kersey, D. G., Norman, D. L. et al. 1988. Advances in Formation Damage Assessment and Control Strategies. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 12–16 June. PETSOC-88-39-65. https://doi.org/10.2118/88-39-65.
Amanullah, M., Al-Arfaj, M. K., and Al-Abdullatif, Z. A. 2011. Preliminary Test Results of Nano-Based Drilling Fluids for Oil and Gas Field Application. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 1–3 March. SPE-139534-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/139534-MS.
Amarfio, E. M. and Abdulkadir, M. 2015. Effect of Fe4O3 Nanoparticles on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud. J. Phys. Sc. App. 5 (6): 415–422. https://doi.org/10.17265/2159-5348/2015.06.005.
API RP 13B-1, Recommended Practice for Field Testing Water-Based Drilling Fluids. 2003. Washington, DC: API.
API SPEC 13A, Specification for Drilling Fluid Materials, 18th edition. 2010. Washington, DC: API.
Bageri, B. S., Al-Mutairi, S. H., and Mahmoud, M. A. 2013. Different Techniques for Characterizing the Filter Cake. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 28–30 January. SPE-163960-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163960-MS.
Barry, M. M., Jung, Y., Lee, J. -K. et al. 2015. Fluid Filtration and Rheological Properties of Nanoparticle Additive and Intercalated Clay Hybrid Bentonite Drilling Fluids. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 127 (March): 338–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.01.012.
Behari, J. 2010. Principles of Nanoscience: An Overview. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 48 (10): 1008–1019.
Boul, P. J., Reddy, B. R., Zhang, J. et al. 2017. Functionalized Nanosilicas as Shale Inhibitors in Water-Based Drilling Fluids. SPE Drill & Compl 32 (2): 121–130. SPE-185950-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/185950-PA.
Bourgoyne, A. T., Millheim. K. K., Chenevert, M. E. et al. 1991. Applied Drilling Engineering, Vol. 2, second edition. Richardson, Texas: SPE Textbook Series.
Cai, J., Chenevert, M. E., Sharma, M. M. et al. 2012. Decreasing Water Invasion Into Atoka Shale Using Nanomodified Silica Nanoparticles. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (1): 103–112. SPE-146979-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/146979-PA.
Chassin, P., Jounay, C., and Quiquampoix, H. 1986. Measurement of the Surface Free Energy of Calcium-Montmorillonite. Clay Minerals 21 (5): 899–907. https://doi.org/10.1180/claymin.1986.021.5.04.
Chenevert, M. E. and Huycke, J. 1991. Filter Cake Structure Analysis Using the Scanning Electron Microscope. SPE-22208-MS.
Civan, F. 1994. A Multi-Phase Mud Filtrate Invasion and Wellbore Filter Cake Formation Model. Presented at the International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition of Mexico, Veracruz, Mexico, 10–13 October. SPE-28709-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/28709-MS.
Civan, F. 1996. A Multi-Purpose Formation Damage Model. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 14–15 February. SPE-31101-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/31101-MS.
Contreras, O., Hareland, G., Husein, M. et al. 2014. Application of In-House Prepared Nanoparticles as Filtration Control Additive to Reduce Formation Damage. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–28 February. SPE-168116-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168116-MS.
Darley, H. C. H. and Gray, G. R. 1988. Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids, fifth edition. Houston: Gulf Professional Publishing Company.
Dick, M. A., Heinz, T. J., Svoboda, C. F. et al. 2000. Optimizing the Selection of Bridging Particles for Reservoir Drilling Fluids. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 23–24 February. SPE-58793-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/58793-MS.
Elkatatny, S. M., Mahmoud, M. A., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2012. Characterization of Filter Cake Generated by Water-Based Drilling Fluids Using CT Scan. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (2): 282–293. SPE-144098-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/144098-PA.
Elkatatny, S., Mahmoud, M., and Nasr-El-Din, H., A. 2013. Filter Cake Properties of Water-Based Drilling Fluids Under Static and Dynamic Conditions Using Computed Tomography Scan. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 135 (4): 042201, 9 pages. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4023483.
Elochukwu, H., Gholami, R., and Dol, S. S. 2017. An Approach to Improve the Cuttings Carrying Capacity of Nanosilica Based Muds. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 152 (April): 309–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2017.03.008.
Fakoya, M. F. and Shah, S. N. 2013. Rheological Properties of Surfactant-Based and Polymeric Nano-Fluids. Presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing & Well Intervention Conference & Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 26–27 March. SPE-163921-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163921-MS.
Fakoya, M. F. and Shah, S. N. 2014. Enhancement of Filtration Properties in Surfactant-Based and Polymeric Fluids by Nanoparticles. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, 21–23 October. SPE-171029-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171029-MS.
Flanagan, D. M. 2014. 2014 Minerals Yearbook: Clay and Shale. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey, April 2017.
Gerogiorgis, D. I., Reilly, S., Vryzas, Z. et al. 2017. Experimentally Validated First-Principles Multivariate Modeling for Rheological Study and Design of Complex Drilling Nanofluid Systems. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, The Hague, 14–16 March. SPE-184692-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/184692-MS.
Grandjean, J. 1997. Water Sites at a Clay Interface. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 185 (2): 554–556. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1996.4630.
Hartman, A., Özerler, M., Marx, C. et al. 1988. Analysis of Mudcake Structures Formed Under Simulated Borehole Conditions. SPE Drill Eng 3 (4): 885–898. SPE-15413-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15413-PA.
Hoberock, L. L. and Bratcher, G. J. 1998. Dynamic Differential Pressure Effects on Drilling of Permeable Formations. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 120 (2): 118–123. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2795021.
Ismail, A. R., Aftab, A., Ibupoto, Z. H. et al. 2016. The Novel Approach for the Enhancement of Rheological Properties of Water-Based Drilling Fluids by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube, Nanosilica and Glass Beads. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 139 (March): 264–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.01.036.
Ismail, A. R., Rashid, N. M., Jaafar, M. Z. et al. 2014. Effect of Nanomaterial on the Rheology of Drilling Fluids. J. Appl. Sci. 14 (11): 1192–1197. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2014.1192.1197.
Jung, Y., Barry, M., Lee, J. -K. et al. 2011. Effect of Nanoparticle-Additives on the Rheological Properties of Clay-Based Fluids at High Temperature and High Pressure. Oral presentation of paper AADE-11-NTCE-2 given at the AADE National Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 12–14 April.
Kosynkin, D. V., Ceriotti, G., Wilson, K. C. et al. 2012. Graphene Oxide as a High-Performance Fluid-Loss-Control Additive in Water-Based Drilling Fluids. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4 (1): 222–227. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/am2012799.
Li, D. and He, W. 2015. Journey Into Filter Cakes: A Microstructural Study. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, 6–9 December. IPTC-18246-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-18246-MS.
Li, W., Kiser, C., and Richard, Q. 2005. Development of a Filter Cake Permeability Test Methodology. Oral presentation given at the American Filtration and Separation Society International Topical Conference and Exposition, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 19–22 September.
Lu, A.-H., Salabas, E. L., and Schuth, F. 2007. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Protection, Functionalization, and Application. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (8): 1222–1244. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200602866.
Luckham, P. F. and Rossi, S. 1999. The Colloidal and Rheological Properties of Bentonite Suspensions. Adv. Colloid Interf. Sci. 82 (1–3): 43–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8686(99)00005-6.
Mahmoud, O., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., Vryzas, Z. et al. 2018. Using Ferric Oxide and Silica Nanoparticles To Develop Modified Calcium Bentonite Drilling Fluids. SPE Drill & Compl 33 (1): 12–26. SPE-178949-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/178949-PA.
Parizad, A. and Shahbazi, K. 2016. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of SnO2 Nanoparticles and KCl Salt on a Water Base Drilling Fluid Properties. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 94 (10): 1924–1938. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.22575.
Plank, J. P. and Gossen, F. A. 1991. Visualization of Fluid-Loss Polymers in Drilling-Mud Filter Cakes. SPE Drill Eng 6 (3): 203–208. SPE-19534-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/19534-PA.
Ponmani, S., Nagarajan, R., and Sangwai, J. S. 2016. Effect of Nanofluids of CuO and ZnO in Polyethylene Glycol and Polyvinylpyrrolidone on the Thermal, Electrical, and Filtration-Loss Properties of Water-Based Drilling Fluids. SPE J. 21 (2): 405–415. SPE-178919-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/178919-PA.
Reilly, S. I., Vryzas, Z., Kelessidis, V. C. et al. 2016. First-Principles Rheological Modelling and Parameter Estimation for Nanoparticle-Based Smart Drilling Fluids. Comput. Aid. Chem. Eng. 38: 1039–1044. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63428-3.50178-8.
Smith, S. R., Rafati, R., Haddad, A. S. et al. 2018. Application of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles to Enhance Rheological and Filtration Properties of Water Based Muds at HPHT Conditions. Colloid. Surface. A 537 (20 January): 361–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2017.10.050.
Song, K., Wu, Q., Li, M. et al. 2016. Water-Based Bentonite Drilling Fluids Modified by Novel Biopolymer for Minimizing Fluid Loss and Formation Damage. Colloid. Surface. A 507 (20 October): 58–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.07.092.
Srivatsa, J. T. and Ziaja, M. B. 2012. An Experimental Investigation on Use of Nanoparticles as Fluid Loss Additives in a Surfactant-Polymer Based Drilling Fluid. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, 7–9 February. IPTC-14952-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-14952-MS.
Suri, A. and Sharma, M. M. 2004. Strategies for Sizing Particles in Drilling and Completion Fluid. SPE J. 9 (1): 13–23. SPE-87676-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/87676-PA.
Vryzas, Z., Mahmoud, O., Nasr-El-Din, H. A. et al. 2015. Development and Testing of Novel Drilling Fluids Using Fe2O3 and SiO2 Nanoparticles for Enhanced Drilling Operations. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, 7–9 December. IPTC-18381-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-18381-MS.
Vryzas, Z., Mahmoud, O., Nasr-El-Din H. A. et al. 2016a. Incorporation of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Drilling Fluid Additives for Improved Drilling Operations. Proc., ASME 2016 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Busan, South Korea, 19–24 June, Vol. 8, V008T11A040, 10 pages. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2016-54071.
Vryzas, Z., Zaspalis, V., Nalbantian, L. et al. 2016b. A Comprehensive Approach for the Development of New Magnetite Nanoparticles Giving Smart Drilling Fluids with Superior Properties for HP/HT Applications. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, 14–16 November. IPTC-18731-MS. https://doi.org/10.2523/18731-MS.
Vryzas, Z., Kelessidis, V. C., Bowman, M. B. J. et al. 2017a. Smart Magnetic Drilling Fluid With In-Situ Rheological Controllability Using Fe3O4 Nanoparticles. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 6–9 March. SPE-183906-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/183906-MS.
Vryzas, Z., Matenoglou, G., and Kelessidis, V. C. 2017b. Assessment of Formation Damage Potential of Novel Drilling Fluids via Integration of Fluid Loss Data With Filter Cake Quality and Filtrate Core Penetration Depth From NMR and MRI. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, Abu Dhabi, 13–16 November. SPE-188544-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/188544-MS.
Wellington, S. L. and Vinegar, H. J. 1987. X-Ray Computerized Tomography. J Pet Technol 39 (8): 885–898. SPE-16983-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/16983-PA.
William, J. K. M., Ponmani, S., Samuel, R. et al. 2014. Effect of CuO and ZnO Nanofluids in Xanthan Gum on Thermal, Electrical and High Pressure Rheology of Water-Based Drilling Fluids. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 117: 15–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.03.005.
Yu, H., Kotsmar, C., Yoon, K. Y. et al. 2010. Transport and Retention of Aqueous Dispersions of Paramagnetic Nanoparticles in Reservoir Rocks. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129887-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/129887-MS.
Zakaria, M. F., Husein, M. M., and Hareland, G. 2012. Novel Nanoparticle-Based Drilling Fluid With Improved Characteristics. Presented at the SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, Noordwjik, The Netherlands, 12–14 June. SPE-156992-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/156992-MS.