Experimental Analysis and Model Evaluation of High-Liquid-Viscosity Two-Phase Upward Vertical Pipe Flow
- Feras Al-Ruhaimani (Kuwait University) | Eduardo Pereyra (University of Tulsa) | Cem Sarica (University of Tulsa) | Eissa M. Al-Safran (Kuwait University) | Carlos F. Torres (University of Los Andes)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 712 - 735
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- high viscosity, two-phase flow, vertical pipe flow
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 380 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Understanding the behavior of two-phase flow is a key parameter for a proper oil/gas-production-system design. Mechanistic models have been developed and tuned to model the entire production system. Most existing two-phase-flow models are derived from experimental data with low-viscosity liquids (µL<20 mPa·s). However, behavior of two-phase flow is expected to be significantly different for high-viscosity oil. The effect of high liquid viscosity on two-phase flow is still not well-studied in vertical pipes.
In this study, the effect of high oil viscosity on upward two-phase gas/oil-flow behavior in vertical pipes was studied experimentally and theoretically. A total of 149 air/high-viscosity-oil and 21 air/water experiments were conducted in a vertical pipe with an inner diameter (ID) of 50.8 mm. Six different oil viscosities—586, 401, 287, 213, 162, and 127 mPa·s;—were considered. The superficial-liquid and -gas velocities were varied from 0.05 to 0.7 m/s and from 0.5 to 5 m/s, respectively.
Flow pattern, pressure gradient, and average liquid holdup were measured and analyzed in this study. The experimental results were used to evaluate different flow-pattern maps, mechanistic models, and correlations for two-phase flow. Significant discrepancies between experimental and predicted results for pressure gradient were observed.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||24|
Akhiyarov, D. T., Zhang, H.-Q., and Sarica, C. 2010. High-Viscosity Oil-Gas Flow in Vertical Pipe. Presented at Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 3–6 May. OTC-20617-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/20617-MS.
Alruhaimani, F. 2015. Experimental Analysis and Theoretical Modeling of High Liquid Viscosity Two-Phase Upward Vertical Pipe Flow. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Ansari, A.M., Sylvester, N. D., Sarica, C. et al. 1994. A Comprehensive Mechanistic Model for Upward Two-Phase Flow in Wellbores. SPE Prod & Fac 9 (2): 143–151. SPE-20630-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20630-PA.
Aziz, K., Govier, G. W., and Fogarasi, M. 1972. Pressure Drop in Wells Producing Oil and Gas. J. Can Pet Technol 11 (3): 38–48. PETSOC-72-03-04. https://doi.org/10.2118/72-03-04.
Barnea, D. 1986. Transition from Annular Flow and from Dispersed Bubble Flow–Unified Models for the Whole Range of Pipe Inclinations. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 12 (5): 733–744. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(86)90048-0.
Barnea, D. 1987. A Unified Model for Predicting Flow-Pattern Transitions for the Whole Range of Pipe Inclinations. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 13 (1): 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(87)90002-4.
Beggs, D. H. and Brill, J. P. 1973. A Study of Two-Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes. J Pet Technol 25 (5): 607–617. SPE-4007-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4007-PA.
Bendiksen, K. H. 1985. On the Motion of Long Bubbles in Vertical Tubes. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 11 (6): 797–812. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(85)90025-4.
Brauner, N. and Barnea, D. 1986. Slug/Churn Transition in Upward Gas-Liquid Flow. Chem. Eng. Sci. 41 (1): 159–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(86)85209-5.
Chokshi, R. N. 1994. Prediction of Pressure Drop and Liquid Holdup in Vertical Two-Phase Flow through Large Diameter Tubing. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Duns, H. Jr. and Ros, N. C. J. 1963. Vertical Flow of Gas and Liquid Mixtures in Wells. Oral presentation of paper WPC-10132 given at the 6th World Petroleum Congress, Frankfurt, Germany, 19–26 June.
Felizola, H. 1992. Slug Flow in Extended Reach Directional Wells. Master’s thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Fox, R. W. and McDonald, A. T. 1992. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, fourth edition. New York City: John Wiley and Sons.
Fréchou, D. 1986. Experimental Study of Upward Gas-Liquid Flow of Two and Three Fluids in a Vertical Pipe (Etude de l’e`coulelement ascendant à trois fluides en conduite verticale). Oil Gas Sci. Technol. (Rev. Inst. Fr. Pét.) 41 (1): 115–129. https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst:1986006.
Furukawa, T. and Fukano, T. 2001. Effects of LiquidViscosity on FlowPattern in Vertical Upward Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 27 (6): 1109–1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-9322(00)00066-5.
Gokcal, B. 2008. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Slug Flow for High Oil Viscosity in Horizontal Pipes. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Gomez, L. E., Shoham, O., Schmidt, Z. et al. 2000. Unified Mechanistic Model for Steady-State Two-Phase Flow: Horizontal to Vertical Upward Flow. SPE J. 5 (3): 339–350. SPE-65705-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/65705-PA.
Hagedorn, A. R. and Brown, K. E. 1965. Experimental Study of Pressure Gradients Occurring During Continuous Two-Phase Flow in Small-Diameter Vertical Conduits. J Pet Technol 17 (4): 475–484. SPE-940-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/940-PA.
Hasan, A. R. and Kabir, C. S. 1988. A Study of Multiphase Flow Behavior in Vertical Wells. SPE Prod Eng 3 (2): 263–272. SPE-15138-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/15138-PA.
Huc, A.-Y. 2010. Heavy Crude Oils: From Geology to Upgrading. An Overview. Paris: Editions Technip.
Kaya, A. S., Sarica, C., and Brill, J. P. 1999. Comprehensive Mechanistic Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Deviated Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-56522-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/56522-MS.
Koeck, C. 1980. Etude du Frottement Parietal Dans un Ecoulement Diphasique Vertical Ascendant. PhD dissertation, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris.
Kora, C., Sarica, C., Zhang, H.-Q. et al. 2011. Effects of High Oil Viscosity on Slug Liquid Holdup in Horizontal Pipes. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 15–17 November. SPE-146954-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146954-MS.
Liu, H. 2014. The Phenomenon of Negative Frictional Pressure Drop in Vertical Two-Phase Flow. Int. J. Heat Fluid Fl. 45 (February): 72–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2013.12.003.
Liu, H., Vandu, C. O., and Krishna, R. 2005. Hydrodynamics of Taylor Flow in Vertical Capillaries: Flow Regimes, Bubble Rise Velocity, Liquid Slug Length, and Pressure Drop. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44 (14): 4884–4897. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie049307n.
Moreiras, J., Pereyra, E., Sarica, C. et al. 2014. Unified Drift Velocity Closure Relationship for Large Bubble Rising in Stagnant Viscous Fluids in Pipes. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 124 (December): 359–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.09.006.
Nicklin, D. J., Wilkes, J. O. and Davidson, J. F. 1962. Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Tubes. Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. 40: 61–68.
OLGA. 2012. User Manual, Dynamic Multiphase Flow Simulator, Version 7.1.3.
Orkiszewski, J. 1967. Predicting Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Vertical Pipe. J Pet Technol 19 (6): 829–838. SPE-1546-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1546-PA.
Ozon, P. M., Ferschneider, G., and Chwetzof, A. 1987. A New Multiphase Flow Model Predicts Pressure and Temperature Profiles. Presented at Offshore Europe, Aberdeen, 8–11 September. SPE-16535-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/16535-MS.
Raghunathan, R. S., Spedding, P. L., and Cooper, R. K. 2003. Two-Phase Flow, Momentum and Energy Balances Revisited. Asia-Pac. J. Chem. Eng. 11 (1–2): 121–126. https://doi.org/10.1002/apj.5500110212.
Sakharov, V. A. and Mokhov, M. A. 2004. Hydrodynamics of Gas-Liquid Mixtures in Vertical Pipes and Lifts. Russia: Oil and Gas, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow.
Sarica, C., Zhang, H.-Q., and Wilkens, R. J. 2011. Sensitivity of Slug Flow Mechanistic Models on Slug Length. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 133 (4): 043001–043001-6. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4005242.
Sawai, T., Kaji, M., Kasugai, T. et al. 2004. Gas–Liquid Interfacial Structure and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Churn Flow. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 28 (6): 597–606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2003.09.003.
Schmidt, J., Giesbrecht, H., and van der Geld, C. W. M. 2008. Phase and Velocity Distributions in Vertically Upward High-Viscosity Two-Phase Flow. Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 34 (4): 363–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2007.10.013.
Schmidt, Z. 1976. Experimental Study of Gas-Liquid Flow in Pipeline-Riser System. Master’s thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Schmidt, Z. 1977. Experimental Study of Two-Phase Slug Flow in a Pipeline-Riser Pipe System. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa.
Shoham, O. 1982. Flow Pattern Transitions and Characterization in Gas-Liquid Two- Phase Flow in Inclined Pipes. PhD dissertation, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
Souhar, M. 1982. Contribution à L’etude Dynamique des Ecoulements Diphasiques Gaz-Liquide en Conduite Verticale: Cas Des Regirnes a Bulles et a Poches. PhD dissertation, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.
Spedding, P. L., Woods, G. S., Raghunathan, R. S. et al. 1998. Vertical Two-Phase Flow Part III: Pressure Drop. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 76 (5): 628–634. https://doi.org/10.1205/026387698525153.
Spedding, P. L., Woods, G. S., Raghunathan, R. S. et al. 2000. Flow Pattern, Holdup and Pressure Drop in Vertical and Near Vertical Two- and Three-Phase Upflow. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 78 (3): 404–418. https://doi.org/10.1205/026387600527301.
Sujumnong, M. 1998. Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop and Void Fraction in Two-Phase, Two-Component Flow in a Vertical Tube. PhD dissertation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Taitel, Y. and Barnea, D. 1990. Two-Phase Slug Flow. Adv. Heat Transfer 20: 83–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2717(08)70026-1.
Taitel, Y., Barnea, D., and Dukler, A. E. 1980. Modeling Flow Pattern Transition for Steady Upward Gas-Liquid Flow in Vertical Tubes. AIChE J. 26 (3): 345–354. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690260304.
Tang, C. C., Tiwari, S., and Ghajar, A. J. 2013. Effect of Void Fraction on Pressure Drop in Upward Vertical Two-Phase Gas–Liquid Pipe Flow. J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power 135 (2): 0229011–0229017. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4007762.
Tengesdal, J. Ø., Kaya, A. S., and Sarica, C. 1999. Flow Pattern Transition and Hydrodynamic Modeling of Churn Flow. SPE J. 4 (4): 342–348. SPE-57756-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/57756-PA.
Wallis, G. B. 1969. One Dimensional Two-Phase Flow. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Zabaras, G., Dukler, A. E., and Moalem-Maron, D. 1986. Vertical Upward Cocurrent Gas-Liquid Annular Flow. AIChE J. 32 (5): 829–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.690320513.
Zhang, H.-Q., Wang, Q., Sarica, C. et al. 2003a. Unified Model for Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow via Slug Dynamics–Part 1: Model Development. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 125 (4): 266–273. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1615246.
Zhang, H.-Q., Wang, Q., Sarica, C. et al. 2003b. Unified Model for Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow via Slug Dynamics–Part 2: Model Validation. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 125 (4): 274–283. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1615618.