Discrete-Fracture Modeling of Complex Hydraulic-Fracture Geometries in Reservoir Simulators
- Yifei Xu (University of Texas at Austin) | Jose S. A. Cavalcante Filho (Petrobras) | Wei Yu (Texas A&M University) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 403 - 422
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Hydraulic fractures, non-neighboring connections, embedded discrete fracture modeling, complex fracture geometries
- 16 in the last 30 days
- 1,640 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Hydraulic fracturing is a dominant technology in unconventional resources development. Recent advances in fracture-diagnostic tools and fracture-propagation models make it necessary to model fractures with complex geometries in reservoir-simulation studies.
In this paper, we present an efficient method to model fractures with complex geometries with reservoir simulators. Through nonneighboring connections (NNCs), an embedded discrete-fracture modeling (EDFM) formulation is applied to reservoir simulators to properly model fractures with complex geometries such as fracture networks and nonplanar hydraulic fractures. We demonstrate the accuracy of the approach by performing a series of case studies with two commercial reservoir simulators and comparing the results with local-grid-refinement (LGR) models and a semi-analytical solution. The limitations of the model are also discussed. In addition, the results show its computational efficiency as the complexity of fractures increases. We also present two numerical case studies to demonstrate the applicability of our method in naturally fractured reservoirs.
The nonintrusive application of the EDFM allows insertion of the discrete fractures into the computational domain and the use of original functionalities of the simulators without having access to the source code of the simulators. It may be easily integrated into existing frameworks for unconventional reservoirs to perform sensitivity analysis, history matching, and production forecasting.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||20|
Abass, H. H., Hedayati, S., and Meadows, D. L. 1996. Nonplanar Fracture Propagation From a Horizontal Wellbore: Experimental Study. SPE Prod & Fac 11 (3): 133–137. SPE-24823-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/24823-PA.
Al-Hinai, O., Singh, G., Pencheva, G. et al. 2013. Modeling Multiphase Flow With Nonplanar Fractures. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 18–20 February. SPE-163605-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163605-MS.
Berkowitz, B., Naumann, C., and Smith, L. 1994. Mass Transfer at Fracture Intersections: An Evaluation of Mixing Models. Water Resour. Res. 30 (6): 1765–1773. https://doi.org/10.1029/94WR00432.
Cavalcante Filho, J. S. A., Shakiba, M., Moinfar, A. et al. 2015. Implementation of a Preprocessor for Embedded Discrete Fracture Modeling in an IMPEC Compositional Reservoir Simulator. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, 23–25 February. SPE-173289-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173289-MS.
Cipolla, C. L., Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. et al. 2010. The Relationship Between Fracture Complexity, Reservoir Properties, and Fracture-Treatment Design. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (4): 438–452. SPE-115769-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/115769-PA.
El Rabaa, W. 1989. Experimental Study of Hydraulic Fracture Geometry Initiated From Horizontal Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8–11 October. SPE-19720-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/19720-MS.
Fisher, M. K., Heinze, J. R., Harris, C. D. et al. 2004. Optimizing Horizontal Completion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using Microseismic Fracture Mapping. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90051-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/90051-MS.
Gale, J. F. W., Reed, R. M., and Holder, J. 2007. Natural Fractures in the Barnett Shale and Their Importance for Hydraulic Fracture Treatments. AAPG Bull. 91 (4): 603–622. https://doi.org/10.1306/11010606061.
Hajibeygi, H., Karvounis, D., and Jenny, P. 2011. A Hierarchical Fracture Model for the Iterative Multiscale Finite Volume Method. J. Comput. Phys. 230 (24): 8729–8743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2011.08.021.
Hoteit, H. and Firoozabadi, A. 2006. Compositional Modeling of Discrete-Fractured Media Without Transfer Functions by the Discontinuous Galerkin and Mixed Methods. SPE J. 11 (3): 341–352. SPE-90277-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/90277-PA.
Hui, M.-H., Mallison, B. T., Fyrozjaee, M. H. et al. 2013. The Upscaling of Discrete Fracture Models for Faster, Coarse-Scale Simulations of IOR and EOR Processes for Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166075-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166075-MS.
Jiang, J., Shao, Y., and Younis, R. M. 2014. Development of a Multi-Continuum Multi-Component Model for Enhanced Gas Recovery and CO2 Storage in Fractured Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169114-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169114-MS.
Karimi-Fard, M. and Firoozabadi, A. 2003. Numerical Simulation of Water Injection in Fractured Media Using the Discrete-Fractured Model and the Galerkin Method. SPE Res Eval & Eng 6 (2): 117–126. SPE-83633-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/83633-PA.
Karimi-Fard, M., Durlofsky, L. J., and Aziz, K. 2004. An Efficient Discrete-Fracture Model Applicable for General-Purpose Reservoir Simulators. SPE J. 9 (2): 227–236. SPE-88812-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/88812-PA.
Langmuir, I. 1918. The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces of Glass, Mica and Platinum. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40: 1403–1461. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja02242a004.
Lee, S. H., Lough, M. F., and Jensen, C. L. 2001. Hierarchical Modeling of Flow in Naturally Fractured Formations With Multiple Length Scales. Water Resour. Res. 37 (3): 443–455. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900340.
Li, L. and Lee, S. H. 2008. Efficient Field-Scale Simulation of Black Oil in a Naturally Fractured Reservoir Through Discrete Fracture Networks and Homogenized Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 750–758. SPE-103901-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/103901-PA.
Marcondes, F., Varavei, A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2010. An Element-Based Finite-Volume Method Approach for Naturally Fractured Compositional Reservoir Simulation. Presented at the 13th Brazilian Congress of Thermal Sciences and Engineering–ENCIT, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil, 5–10 December.
Matthai, S., Menzentsev, A., and Belayneh, M. 2005. Control-Volume Finite-Element Two-Phase Flow Experiments With Fractured Rock Represented by Unstructured 3D Hybrid Meshes. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, 31 January–2 February. SPE-93341-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/93341-MS.
Maxwell, S. C., Urbancic, T. I., Steinsberger, N. et al. 2002. Microseismic Imaging of Hydraulic Fracture Complexity in the Barnett Shale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77440-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/77440-MS.
Moinfar, A., Varavei, A., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 2013. Development of a Coupled Dual Continuum and Discrete Fracture Model for the Simulation of Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 18–20 February. SPE-163647-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/163647-MS.
Moinfar, A., Varavei, A., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 2014. Development of an Efficient Embedded Discrete Fracture Model for 3D Compositional Reservoir Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs. SPE J. 19 (2): 289–303. SPE-154246-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/154246-PA.
Monteagudo, J. and Firoozabadi, A. 2004. Control-Volume Method for NumericalSimulation of Two-Phase Immiscible Flow in Two- and Three-Dimensional Discrete-Fractured Media. Water Resour. Res. 40 (7): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003WR002996.
Noorishad, J. and Mehran, M. 1982. An Upstream Finite Element Method for Solution of Transient Transport Equation in Fractured Porous Media. Water Resour. Res. 18 (3): 588–596. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR018i003p00588.
Olorode, O., Freeman, C. M., Moridis, G. et al. 2013. High-Resolution Numerical Modeling of Complex and Irregular Fracture Patterns in Shale-Gas Reservoirs and Tight Gas Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 16 (4): 443–455. SPE-152482-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/152482-PA.
Olson, J. E. 2008. Multi-Fracture Propagation Modeling: Applications to Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales and Tight Gas Sands. Presented at the 42nd US Rock Mechanics Symposium (USRMS), San Francisco, 29 June–2 July.
Panfili, P. and Cominelli, A. 2014. Simulation of Miscible Gas Injection in a Fractured Carbonate Reservoir Using an Embedded Discrete Fracture Model. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 10–13 November. SPE-171830-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171830-MS.
Patzek, T. W., Male, F., and Marder, M. 2013. Gas Production in the Barnett Shale Obeys a Simple Scaling Theory. PNAS 110 (49): 19731–19736. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1313380110.
Peaceman, D. W. 1983. Interpretation of Well-Block Pressures in Numerical Reservoir Simulation With Nonsquare Grid Blocks and Anisotropic Permeability. SPE J. 23 (3): 531–543. SPE-10528-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10528-PA.
Peng, D. Y. and Robinson, D. B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 15 (1): 59–64. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Sandve, T. H., Berre, I., and Nordbotten, J. M. 2012. An Efficient Multi-Point Flux Approximation Method for Discrete Fracture–Matrix Simulations. Journal of Computational Physics 231 (9): 3784–3800. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2012.01.023.
Seldle, J. P. and Arri, L. E. 1990. Use of Conventional Reservoir Models for Coalbed Methane Simulation. Presented at the CIM/SPE International Technical Meeting, Calgary, 10–13 June. PETSOC-90-118. https://doi.org/10.2118/90-118.
Warpinski, N. R., Mayerhofer, M. J., Vincent, M. C. et al. 2009. Stimulating Unconventional Reservoirs: Maximizing Network Growth While Optimizing Fracture Conductivity. J Can Pet Technol 48 (10): 39–51. SPE-114173-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/114173-PA.
Weijers, L. and de Pater, C. J. 1992. Fracture Reorientation in Model Tests. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 26–27 February. SPE-23790-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/23790-MS.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C.-E. et al. 2011. Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracture-Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (4): 368–380. SPE-140253-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140253-PA.
Wu, K. and Olson, J. E. 2014. Mechanics Analysis of Interaction Between Hydraulic and Natural Fractures in Shale Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. SPE-2014-1922946-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/urtec-2014-1922946-MS.
Wu, K. and Olson, J. E. 2015. Simultaneous Multifracture Treatments: Fully Coupled Fluid Flow and Fracture Mechanics for Horizontal Wells. SPE J. 20 (2): 337–346. SPE-167626-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167626-PA.
Yu, W. 2015. A Comprehensive Model for Simulation of Gas Transport in Shale Formation With Complex Hydraulic Fracture Geometry. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-178747-STU. https://doi.org/10.2118/178747-STU.
Yu, W., Lashgari, H. R., Wu, K. et al. 2015. CO2 Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Bakken Tight Oil Reservoirs. Fuel 159: 354–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.06.092.
Yu, W., Wu, K., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2016. A Semianalytical Model for Production Simulation From Nonplanar Hydraulic-Fracture Geometry in Tight Oil Reservoirs. SPE J. 21 (3): 1028–1040. SPE-178440-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/178440-PA.
Zhou, W., Banerjee, R., Poe, B. et al. 2014. Semi-analytical Production Simulation of Complex Hydraulic-Fracture Networks. SPE J. 19 (1): 6–18. SPE-157367-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/157367-PA.