A New Approach to the Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracturing Treatments in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
- Sanbai Li (Peking University) | Dongxiao Zhang (Peking University) | Xiang Li (Peking University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,064 - 1,081
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- complex fracture networks, hydraulic fracturing, coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) model, MPFA L-method, crossing criterion
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 734 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
A fully coupled thermal/hydromechanical (THM) model for hydraulic-fracturing treatments is developed in this study. In this model, the mixed finite-volume/finite-element method is used to solve the coupled system, in which the multipoint flux approximation L-method is used to calculate interelement fluid and heat flux. The Gu et al. (2011) crossing criterion is extended to a 3D scenario to delineate the crossing behaviors as hydraulic fractures meet inclined natural fractures. Moreover, the modified Barton et al. (1985) model proposed by Asadollahi et al. (2010) is used to estimate the fracture aperture and model the shear-dilation effect. After being (partially) verified by means of comparison with results from the literature, the developed model is used to investigate complex-fracture-network propagation in naturally fractured reservoirs. Numerical experiments show that the key factors controlling the complexity of the induced-fracture networks include stress anisotropy, injection rate, natural-fracture distribution (fracture-dip angle, strike angle, spacing, density, and length), fracture-filling properties (the degree of cementation and permeability), fracture-surface properties (cohesion and friction angle), and tensile strength of intact rock. It is found that the smaller the stress anisotropy and/or the lower the injection rate, the more complex the fracture network; a high rock tensile strength could increase the possibility of the occurrence of shear fractures; and under conditions of large permeability of fracture filling combined with small cohesive strength and friction coefficient, shear slip could become the dominant mechanism for generating complex-fracture networks. The model developed and the results presented can be used to understand the propagation of complex-fracture networks and aid in the design and optimization of hydraulic-fracturing treatments.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Adachi, J., Siebrits, E., Peirce, A. et al. 2007. Computer Simulation of Hydraulic Fractures. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 44 (5): 739–757. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2006.11.006.
Asadollahi, P., Invernizzi, M. C. A., Addotto, S. et al. 2010. Experimental Validation of Modified Barton’s Model for Rock Fractures. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 43 (5): 597–613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-010-0085-6.
Asadollahi, P. and Tonon, F. 2010. Constitutive Model for Rock Fractures: Revisiting Barton’s Empirical Model. Eng. Geol. 113 (1–4): 11–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.01.007.
Bandis, S. C., Lumsden, A. C., and Barton, N. R. 1983. Fundamentals of Rock Joint Deformation. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 20 (6): 249–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(83)90595-8.
Barton, N. 1982. Modelling Rock Joint Behaviour from In Situ Block Tests: Implications for Nuclear Waste Repository Design. Report No. ONWI-308, Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Columbus, Ohio (September 1982).
Barton, N., Bandis, S., and Bakhtar, K. 1985. Strength, Deformation and Conductivity Coupling of Rock Joints. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 22 (3): 121–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(85)93227-9.
Blanton, T. L. 1982. An Experimental Study of Interaction Between Hydraulically Induced and Pre-Existing Fractures. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Recovery Symposium, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 16–18 May. SPE-10847-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/10847-MS.
Bunger, A. P., Kear, J., Jeffrey, R. G. et al. 2016. Investigation of Hydraulic Fracture Growth Through Weak Discontinuities With Active Ultrasound Monitoring. CIM J. 7 (3): 165–177. https://doi.org/10.15834/cimj.2016.17.
Cai, M. and Horii, H. 1992. A Constitutive Model of Highly Jointed Rock Masses. Mech. Mater. 13 (3): 217–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-6636(92)90004-W.
Cheng, W., Jin, Y., Chen, M. et al. 2014. A Criterion for Identifying Hydraulic Fractures Crossing Natural Fractures in 3D Space. Petrol. Explor. Dev. 41 (3): 371–376. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1876-3804(14)60042-2.
Chuprakov, D., Melchaeva, O., and Prioul, R. 2014. Injection-Sensitive Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracture Interaction with Discontinuities. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 47 (5): 1625–1640. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-014-0596-7.
Coussey, O. 2004. Poromechanics. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Dahi-Taleghani, A. and Olson, J. E. 2011. Numerical Modeling of Multistranded-Hydraulic-Fracture Propagation: Accounting for the Interaction Between Induced and Natural Fractures. SPE J. 16 (3): 575–581. SPE-124884-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/124884-PA.
Dehghan, A. N., Goshtasbi, K., Ahangari, K. et al. 2015. The Effect of Natural Fracture Dip and Strike on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 75 (April): 210–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2015.02.001.
Figueiredo, B., Tsang, C.-F., Rutqvist, J. et al. 2015. A Study of Changes in Deep Fractured Rock Permeability due to Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Effects. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 79 (October): 70–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2015.08.011.
Fisher, M. K. and Warpinski, N. R. 2012. Hydraulic-Fracture-Height Growth: Real Data. SPE Prod & Oper 27 (1): 8–19. SPE-145949-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/145949-PA.
Fu, P., Johnson, S. M., and Carrigan, C. R. 2011. An Explicitly Coupled Hydro-Geomechanical Model for Simulating Hydraulic Fracturing in Complex Discrete Fracture Networks. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Met. 37 (14): 2278–2300. https://doi.org/10.1002/nag.2135.
Gale, J. F., Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E. et al. 2014. Natural Fractures in Shale: A Review and New Observations. AAPG Bull. 98 (11): 2165–2216. https://doi.org/10.1306/08121413151.
Gale, J. F., Reed, R. M., and Holder, J. 2007. Natural Fractures in the Barnett Shale and Their Importance for Hydraulic Fracture Treatments. AAPG Bull. 91 (4): 603–622. https://doi.org/10.1306/11010606061.
Geertsma, J. and Klerk, F. D. 1969. A Rapid Method of Predicting Width and Extent of Hydraulically Induced Fractures. J Pet Technol 21 (12): 1571–1581. SPE-2458-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2458-PA.
Goodarzi, S., Settari, A., Zoback, M. et al. 2013. Thermal Effects on Shear Fracturing and Injectivity During CO2 Storage. Oral presentation given at the ISRM International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, 20–22 May.
Goodman, R. 1974. The Mechanical Properties of Joints. Proc., 3rd Congress of the International Society of Rock Mechanics, Denver, 1–7 September, Vol. 1A, 127–140.
Gu, H., Weng, X., Lund, J. B. et al. 2011. Hydraulic Fracture Crossing Natural Fracture at Nonorthogonal Angles: A Criterion and Its Validation. SPE Prod & Oper 27 (1): 20–26. SPE-139984-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/139984-PA.
Hossaini, K. A., Babanouri, N., and Nasab, S. K. 2014. The Influence of Asperity Deformability on the Mechanical Behavior of Rock Joints. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 70 (September): 154–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2014.04.009.
Ishibashi, T., Watanabe, N., Hirano, N. et al. 2012. Upgrading of Aperture Model Based on Surface Geometry of Natural Fracture for Evaluating Channeling Flow. GRC Trans. 36 (January): 481–486.
Jaeger, J. C., Cook, N. G. W., and Zimmerman, R. 2007. Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, fourth edition. London: Chapmen and Hall.
Jeffrey, R. G., Bunger, A., LeCampion, B. et al. 2009. Measuring Hydraulic Fracture Growth in Naturally Fractured Rock. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124919-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124919-MS.
Ji, L., Settari, A., and Sullivan, R. B. 2009. A Novel Hydraulic Fracturing Model Fully Coupled With Geomechanics and Reservoir Simulation. SPE J. 14 (3): 423–430. SPE-110845-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/110845-PA.
Jing, L., Nordlund, E., and Stephansson, O. 1994. A 3-D Constitutive Model for Rock Joints with Anisotropic Friction and Stress Dependency in Shear Stiffness. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 31 (2): 173–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)92808-8.
King, G. E. 2010. Thirty Years of Gas Shale Fracturing: What Have We Learned? Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-133456-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/133456-MS.
Kresse, O., Weng, X., Chuprakov, D. et al. 2013. Effect of Flow Rate and Viscosity on Complex Fracture Development in UFM Model. Presented at the ISRM International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, 20–22 May. ISRMICHF-2013-027.
Lee, H. and Cho, T. 2002. Hydraulic Characteristics of Rough Fractures in Linear Flow under Normal and Shear Load. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 35 (4): 299–318. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-002-0028-y.
Lei, Q., Latham, J.-P., Xiang, J. et al. 2015. Polyaxial Stress-Induced Variable Aperture Model for Persistent 3D Fracture Networks. Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment 1: 34–47.
Li, S., Li, X., and Zhang, D. 2016. A Fully Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, Three-Dimensional Model for Hydraulic Stimulation Treatments. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 34 (August): 64–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.06.046.
Maxwell, S. C., Urbancic, T., Steinsberger, N. et al. 2002. Microseismic Imaging of Hydraulic Fracture Complexity in the Barnett Shale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77440-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/77440-MS.
Maxwell, S. C., Waltman, C., Warpinski, N. R. et al. 2009. Imaging Seismic Deformation Induced by Hydraulic Fracture Complexity. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (1): 48–52. SPE-102801-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/102801-PA.
McClure, M. W., Babazadeh, M., Shiozawa, S. et al. 2016. Fully Coupled Hydromechanical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in 3D Discrete-Fracture Networks. SPE J. 21 (4): 1302–1320. SPE-173354-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173354-PA.
Nagel, N., Sanchez-Nagel, M., Zhang, F. et al. 2013. Coupled Numerical Evaluations of the Geomechanical Interactions Between a Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation and a Natural Fracture System in Shale Formations. Rock Mech. Rock Eng. 46 (3): 581–609. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-013-0391-x.
Nassir, M., Settari, A., and Wan, R. G. 2012. Prediction And Optimization Of Fracturing In Tight Gas And Shale Using A Coupled Geomechanical Model Of Combined Tensile And Shear Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-152200-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/152200-MS.
Nordgren, R. P. 1972. Propagation of a Vertical Hydraulic Fracture. SPE J. 12 (4): 306–314. SPE-3009-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3009-PA.
Olson, J. E. 2004. Predicting Fracture Swarms—The Influence of Subcritical Crack Growth and the Crack-Tip Process Zone on Joint Spacing in Rock. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Pub. 231 (1): 73–88. https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2004.231.01.05.
Olson, J. E. and Taleghani, A. D. 2009. Modeling Simultaneous Growth of Multiple Hydraulic Fractures and Their Interaction with Natural Fractures. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 19–21 January. SPE-119739-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/119739-MS.
Perkins, T. K. and Kern, L. R. 1961. Widths of Hydraulic Fractures. J Pet Technol 13 (9): 937–949. SPE-89-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/89-PA.
Renshaw, C. and Pollard, D. 1995. An Experimentally Verified Criterion for Propagation Across Unbounded Frictional Interfaces in Brittle, Linear Elastic Materials. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. 32 (3): 237–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(94)00037-4.
Riahi, A. and Damjanac, B. 2013. Numerical Study of Interaction Between Hydraulic Fracture and Discrete Fracture Network. Presented at the ISRM International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, 20–22 May. ISRM-ICHF-2013-037.
Sneddon, I. N. 1946. The Distribution of Stress in the Neighbourhood of a Crack in an Elastic Solid. P. Roy. Soc. Lond. A. Mat. 187 (1009): 229–260. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.1946.0077.
Tran, D., Settari, A., and Long, N. 2013. Effects of Thermally-Induced Secondary Cracks on Hydraulic Fracture Geometry. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, 5–7 November. SPE-167123-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167123-MS.
Tsang, C.-F. and Neretnieks, I. 1998. Flow Channeling in Heterogeneous Fractured Rocks. Rev. Geophys. 36 (2): 275–298. https://doi.org/10.1029/97RG03319.
Warpinski, N. and Teufel, L. 1987. Influence of Geologic Discontinuities on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation (includes associated papers 17011 and 17074). J Pet Technol 39 (2): 209–220. SPE-13224-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13224-PA.
Weng, X. 2014. Modeling of Complex Hydraulic Fractures in Naturally Fractured Formation. J. Unconventional Oil Gas Res. 9 (March): 114–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juogr.2014.07.001.
Weng, X., Kresse, O., Cohen, C.-E. et al. 2011. Modeling of Hydraulic-Fracture-Network Propagation in a Naturally Fractured Formation. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (4): 368–380. SPE-140253-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140253-PA.
Weng, X., Sesetty, V., and Kresse, O. 2015. Investigation of Shear-Induced Permeability in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the 49th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 28 June–1 July. ARMA-2015-121.
Willis-Richards, J., Watanabe, K., and Takahashi, H. 1996. Progress Toward a Stochastic Rock Mechanics Model of Engineered Geothermal Systems. J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea. 101 (B8): 17481–17496. https://doi.org/10.1029/96JB00882.
Wu, K. 2014. Numerical Modeling of Complex Hydraulic Fracture Development in Unconventional Reservoirs. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (December 2014).
Wu, K. and Olson, J. E. 2013. Investigation of the Impact of Fracture Spacing and Fluid Properties for Interfering Simultaneously or Sequentially Generated Hydraulic Fractures. SPE Prod & Oper 28 (4): 427–436. SPE-163821-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/163821-PA.
Wu, K. and Olson, J. E. 2015a. Numerical Investigation of Complex Hydraulic Fracture Development in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 3–5 February. SPE-173326-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173326-MS.
Wu, K. and Olson, J. E. 2015b. Simultaneous Multifracture Treatments: Fully Coupled Fluid Flow and Fracture Mechanics for Horizontal Wells. SPE J. 20 (2): 337–346. SPE-167626-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167626-PA.
Zhang, X. and Jeffrey, R. G. 2008. Reinitiation or Termination of Fluid-Driven Fractures at Frictional Bedding Interfaces. J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea. 113 (B8): B08416. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JB005327.
Zhou, J., Huang, H., and Deo, M. 2015. Modeling the Interaction Between Hydraulic and Natural Fractures Using Dual-Lattice Discrete Element Method. Presented at the 49th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 28 June–1 July. ARMA-2015-507.