A Case Study on Miscible and Immiscible Gas-Injection Pilots in a Middle East Carbonate Reservoir in an Offshore Environment
- Jitendra Kumar (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company) | Pawan Agrawal (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company) | Elyes Draoui (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 19 - 29
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- offshore middle east, Immiscible Gas Injection, Miscible Gas Injection, Gas Injection Pilot, Carbonate reservoir
- 19 in the last 30 days
- 422 since 2007
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Hydrocarbon-gas injection is one of the most widely applied processes in the oil industry and is a promising enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) method for use in Middle East carbonate oil fields. Gas injection improves the microscopic-displacement efficiency and generally acts as pressure maintenance; however, unfavorable mobility ratio can negatively affect the ultimate recovery because of viscous fingering and gravity override.
This paper describes two gas-injection pilots that have been implemented in offshore Middle East carbonate reservoirs: a secondary and a tertiary gas injection through line drive to assess injectivity, productivity, macroscopic-sweep efficiency, flow assurance, and operational efficiency in a field that has a long water-injection history. A strong monitoring plan, including an observer well, was applied through time-lapse saturation logging, pressure measurements, production testing, and a tracer campaign to evaluate the pilot efficiency and address key uncertainties upfront before full-field application.
This paper describes the pilot performance in the context of full-field development, local- and macroscopic-displacement efficiency, flow-assurance issues, and operational learnings. The gas injection performance is strongly affected by reservoir heterogeneity, gravity segregation, and the existing pressure gradient, and the history match performed indicates near-miscible or miscible behavior depending upon local pressure regimes, which thus govern the ultimate recovery. The history match also shows that for the same pilot, performance can be further improved through water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection, resulting in a viable development scheme for full-field implementation.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
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