A Case Study on Miscible and Immiscible Gas-Injection Pilots in a Middle East Carbonate Reservoir in an Offshore Environment
- Jitendra Kumar (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company) | Pawan Agrawal (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company) | Elyes Draoui (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 19 - 29
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- offshore middle east, Immiscible Gas Injection, Miscible Gas Injection, Gas Injection Pilot, Carbonate reservoir
- 26 in the last 30 days
- 468 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Hydrocarbon-gas injection is one of the most widely applied processes in the oil industry and is a promising enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) method for use in Middle East carbonate oil fields. Gas injection improves the microscopic-displacement efficiency and generally acts as pressure maintenance; however, unfavorable mobility ratio can negatively affect the ultimate recovery because of viscous fingering and gravity override.
This paper describes two gas-injection pilots that have been implemented in offshore Middle East carbonate reservoirs: a secondary and a tertiary gas injection through line drive to assess injectivity, productivity, macroscopic-sweep efficiency, flow assurance, and operational efficiency in a field that has a long water-injection history. A strong monitoring plan, including an observer well, was applied through time-lapse saturation logging, pressure measurements, production testing, and a tracer campaign to evaluate the pilot efficiency and address key uncertainties upfront before full-field application.
This paper describes the pilot performance in the context of full-field development, local- and macroscopic-displacement efficiency, flow-assurance issues, and operational learnings. The gas injection performance is strongly affected by reservoir heterogeneity, gravity segregation, and the existing pressure gradient, and the history match performed indicates near-miscible or miscible behavior depending upon local pressure regimes, which thus govern the ultimate recovery. The history match also shows that for the same pilot, performance can be further improved through water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection, resulting in a viable development scheme for full-field implementation.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Al-Basry, A. H., Al-Hajeri, S. K., Saadawi, H. N. et al. 2011. Lessons Learned from the First Miscible CO2-EOR Pilot Project in Heterogeneous Carbonate Oil Reservoir in Abu Dhabi. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25–28 September. SPE-142665-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142665-MS.
Al-Hendi, A., Boyd, D. and Al-Riyami, A. 1998. Design of Action Plan and Monitoring Program; Secondary and Tertiary Gas Injection Pilots in a Limestone Reservoir. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 11–14 November. SPE-49538-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49538-MS.
Al-Shamsi, H. A., Al-Katheeri, A. B., Al-Ameri, A. F. et al. 2012. Immiscible WAG Injection Pilots Performance and Lessons Learnt in Carbonate Reservoir Onshore Abu Dhabi Oil Field, United Arab Emirates. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 11–14 November. SPE-162165-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/162165-MS.
Alsharhan, A. S. and Nairn, A. E. M. 1997. Sedimentary Basins and Petroleum Geology of Middle East. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Bonnin, E., Levallois, B. and Joffroy, G. 2002. Full Field Tertiary Gas Injection: A Case History Offshore Abu Dhabi. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 13–16 October. SPE-78362-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78362-MS.
Bourgeois, M. J., Thibeau, S. and Guo, J. 2011. Modelling Residual Oil Saturation in Miscible and Immiscible Gas Floods by Use of Alpha Factors. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 23–26 May. SPE-143379-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143379-MS.
Camy, J. P. and Emanuel, A. S. 1977. Effect of Grid Size in the Compositional Simulation of CO2 Injection. Presented at the SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver. 9–12 October. SPE-6894-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6894-MS.
Dabbouk, C., Namba, T. and Mohammed, S. A. 1996. Pilot Gas Injection Design in Two Middle East Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 13–16 October. SPE-36248-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36248-MS.
Figuera, L. A., Al-Hammadi, K. E., Bin Amro, A. A. et al. 2014. Performance Review and Field Measurements of an EOR-WAG Project in Tight Oil Carbonate Reservoir- Abu Dhabi Onshore Field Experience. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 10–13 November. SPE-171871-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171871-MS.
Green, D. W. and Willhite, G. P. 1998. Enhanced Oil Recovery, Vol. 6. Richardson, Texas: Textbook Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Hiraiwa, T. and Suzuki, K. 2007. New Method of Incorporating Immobile and Nonvaporizing Residual Oil Saturation into Compositional Reservoir Simulation of Gasflooding. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (1): 60–65. SPE-88719-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88719-PA.
Jerauld, G. R. 1998. A Case Study in Scaleup for Multicontact Miscible Hydrocarbon Gas Injection. SPE Res Eval & Eng 1 (6): 575–582. SPE-53006-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/53006-PA.
Konwar, L., Tariq, S., Khan, S. et al. 2011. Lessons Learnt from Nine Years of Immiscible Gas Injection Performance and Sector Modeling Study of Two Pilots in a Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoir. Presented at the Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, 9–11 October. SPE-147999-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147999-MS.
Kumar, J., Yammahi, F. S. and Nakashima, T. 2015. Gas Injection EOR Screening by Laboratory Experiment and Sector Modeling in Carbonate Reservoir. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 9–12 November. SPE-177505-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177505-MS.
Lawrence, J. J., Teletzke, G. F., Hutfilz, J. M. et al. 2003. Reservoir Simulation of Gas Injection Processes. Presented at the Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 5–8 April. SPE-81459-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81459-MS.
Marzouk, I. 1999. Wettability and Saturation in Abu Dhabi Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the Middle East Oil Show and Conference, Bahrain, 20–23 February. SPE-53379-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/53379-MS.
Nakashima, T., Kumar, J. and Draoui, E. 2015. Development of a Giant Carbonate Oil Field, Part 2: Migration from Pressure Maintenance Development to Sweep Oriented IOR Development. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 9–12 November. SPE-177801-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177801-MS.
Negahban, S., Joshi, N., Jamaluddin, A. K. M. et al. 2003. A Systematic Approach for Experimental Study of Asphaltene Deposition for an Abu Dhabi Reservoir Under WAG Development Plan. Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 5–7 February. SPE-80261-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80261-MS.
Nicolle, G., Cartier, G. and Jaber, O. 1998. Tertiary Gas Injection: From Pilot to Full Field – A Case History Offshore Abu Dhabi. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 11–14 November. SPE-49516-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49516-MS.
Patacchini, L., Sebastien, D., Bourgeois, M. et al. 2015. Simulation of Residual Oil Saturation in Near-Miscible Gasflooding through Saturation-Dependent Tuning of the Equilibrium Constants. SPE Res Eval & Eng 18 (3): 288–302. SPE-171806-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171806-PA.
Pavangat, V., Patacchini, L., Goyal, P. et al. 2015. Development of a Giant Carbonate Oil Field, Part 1: Fifty Years of Pressure Maintenance History. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 9–12 November. SPE-177768-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177768-MS.
Roxar. 2012. Reservoir Management Software (RMS) Suite, version 2012. Emerson Process Management Group.
Schlumberger. 2012. Eclipse 300 software, version 2012. Schlumberger Limited.
Stofferis, M. and Boibien, C. 1995. Monitoring of Two Gas Injection Pilots in an Offshore Abu Dhabi Field. Presented at the Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 11–14 March. SPE-29804-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29804-MS.
Yonebayashi, H., Al-Mutairi, A. M., Al-Habshi, A. M. et al. 2009. Dynamic Asphaltene Behavior for Gas Injection Risk Analysis. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, 7–9 December. IPTC-13266-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-13266-MS.