Numerical Analysis of the Source of Excessive Na+ and Cl– Species in Flowback Water From Hydraulically Fractured Shale Formations
- Maxian B. Seales (Pennsylvania State University) | Robert Dilmore (National Energy Technology Laboratory) | Turgay Ertekin (Pennsylvania State University) | John Yilin Wang (Pennsylvania State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,477 - 1,490
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Flowback water, Shale gas, Total Dissolve Solids
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 280 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Fracture fluid is composed of fresh water, proppant, and a small percentage of other additives, which support the hydraulic-fracturing process. Excluding situations in which flowback water is recycled and reused, the total dissolved solids (TDS) in fracture fluid is limited to the fluid additives, such as potassium chloride (1 to 7 wt% KCl), which is used as a clay stabilizer to minimize clay swelling and clay-particle migration. However, the composition of recovered fluid, especially as it relates to the TDS, is always substantially different from the injected fracture fluid.
The ability to predict flowback-water volume and composition is useful when planning for the management or reuse of this aqueous byproduct stream. In this work, an ion-transport and halite-dissolution model was coupled with a fully implicit, dual-porosity, numerical simulator to study the source of the excess solutes in flowback water and to predict the concentration of both Na+ and Cl– species seen in recovered water. The results showed that mixing alone, between the injected fracture fluid and concentrated in-situ formation brine, could not account for the substantial rise in TDS seen in flowback water. Instead, the results proved that halite dissolution is a major contributor to the change in TDS seen in fracture fluid during injection and recovery. Halite dissolution can account for as much as 81% of Cl– and 86.5% of Na+ species seen in 90-day flowback water; mixing, between the injected fracture fluid and in-situ concentrated brine, accounts for approximately 19% of Cl– and 13% of Na+.
|File Size||4 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Aagaard, P. and Helgeson, H. 1982. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Constraints on Reaction Rates Among Minerals and Aqueous Solutions; I, Theoretical Considerations. American J. Sci. 282 (3): 237–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.282.3.237.
Alkattan, M., Oelkers, E. H., Dandurand, J.-L. et al. 1997. Experimental Studies of Halite Dissolution Kinetics, 1 The Effect of Saturation State and the Presence of Trace Metals. Chemical Geology 137 (3): 201–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(96)00164-7.
Bazin, B. and Labrid, J. 1991. Ion Exchange and Dissolution/Precipitation Modeling: Application to the Injection of Aqueous Fluids Into a Reservoir Sandstone. SPE Res Eng 6 (2): 233–238. SPE-18464-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18464-PA.
Bhuyan, D., Lake, L. W., and Pope, G. A. 1990. Mathematical Modeling of High-pH Chemical Flooding. SPE Res Eng 5 (2): 213–220. SPE-17398-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17398-PA.
Blauch, M., Myers, R., Moore, T. et al. 2009. Marcellus Shale Post-Frac Flowback Waters—Where Is All the Salt Coming From and What Are the Implications? Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, USA, 23–25 September. SPE-125740-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125740-MS.
Bryant, S. L., Schechter, R. S., and Lake, L. W. 1986. Interactions of Precipitation/Dissolution Waves and Ion Exchange in Flow Through Permeable Media. AIChE J. 32 (5): 751–764. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690320505.
Chapman, E. C., Capo, R. C., Stewart, B. W. et al. 2012. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters From Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction. Environmental Science & Technology 46 (6): 3545–3553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es204005g.
Drever, J. I. 1988. The Geochemistry of Natural Waters. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Engelder, T., Lash, G., and Uzcategui, R. 2009. Joint Sets That Enhance Production From Middle and Upper Devonian Gas Shales of the Appalachian Basin. AAPG Bull. 93 (7): 857–889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/03230908032.
Gdanski, R. D., Weaver, J., and Slabaugh, B. F. 2007. A New Model for Matching Fracturing Fluid Flowback Composition. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, College Station, Texas, USA. 29–31 January. SPE-106040-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106040-MS.
Haluszczak, L. O., Rose, A. W., and Kump, L. R. 2013. Geochemical Evaluation of Flowback Brine From Marcellus Gas Wells in Pennsylvania, USA. Applied Geochemistry 28: 55–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.10.002.
Hayes, T. 2009. Sampling and Analysis of Water Streams Associated With the Development of Marcellus Shale Gas. Final report. Des Plaines, Illinois, USA: G. T. Institute (for Marcellus Shale Coalition).
Hayes, T. and Severin, B. 2012. Characterization of Flowback Waters From the Marcellus and the Barnett Shale Regions. Technical report. Barnett and Appalachian Shale Water Management and Reuse Technologies RPSEA.
Helgeson, H. C. and Kirkham, D. H. 1974. Theoretical Prediction of the Thermodynamic Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes at High Pressures and Temperatures; II, Debye-Huckel Parameters for Activity Coefficients and Relative Partial Molal Properties. American J. Sci. 274 (10): 1199–1261.
Horn, A. D. 2009. Breakthrough Mobile Water Treatment Converts 75% of Fracturing Flowback Fluid to Fresh Water and Lowers CO2 Emissions. Presented at the SPE Americas E&P Environmental and Safety Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 23–25 March. SPE-121104-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121104-MS.
Lasaga, A. C. and Kirkpatrick, R. J. 1981. Kinetics of Geochemical Processes (Reviews in Mineralogy), Vol. 8. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America.
Liu, X. and Ortoleva, P. 1996. A General-Purpose, Geochemical Reservoir Simulator. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6–9 October. SPE-36700-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36700-MS.
Malmberg, C. and Maryott, A. 1956. Dielectric Constant of Water From 0 to 100°C. J. Research of the National Bureau of Standards 56: 1–8.
Mesmer, R. and Baes, C. 1976. The Hydrolysis of Cations. New York: Wiley.
Mohan, A. M., Hartsock, A., Hammack, R. W. et al. 2013. Microbial Communities in Flowback Water Impoundments From Hydraulic Fracturing for Recovery of Shale Gas. FEMS Microbial Ecol 86 (3): 567–580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1574-6941.
OpenStax College [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3A214_Dissociation_of_Sodium_Chloride_in_Water-01.jpg.
Palandri, J. and Kharaka, Y. K. 2004. A Compilation of Rate Parameters of Water-Mineral Interaction Kinetics for Application to Geochemical Modeling. Open-file report 2004-1068. Menlo Park, California: USGS and NETL: US Geological Survey.
Paugh, L. O. 2008. Marcellus Shale Water Management Challenges in Pennsylvania. Presented at the SPE Shale Gas Production Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, 16–18 November. SPE-119898-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119898-MS.
Pitzer, K. S. 1975. Thermodynamics of Electrolytes. V. Effects of Higher-Order Electrostatic Terms. J. Solution Chemistry 4 (3): 249–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00646562.
Puder, M. and Veil, J. 2006. Offsite Commercial Disposal of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Waste: Availability, Options, and Cost. ANL. http://dx.doi.org/10.2172/898533.
Seales, M., Wang, J. Y., and Ertekin, T. 2015. Analysis of Fracture Fluid Cleanup and Long-term Recovery in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Dissertation/thesis, Pennsylvania State University (August 2015).
Seales, M., Dilmore, R., Ertekin, T. et al. In press. A Numerical Study of Factors Affecting Fracture Fluid Cleanup and Produced Gas/Water in Marcellus Shale (Part II). SPE J. (submitted 29 November 2015).
Shafer, L. 2011. Water Recycling and Purification in the Pinedale Anticline Field: Results From the Anticline Disposal Project. Presented at the SPE Americas E&P Health, Safety, Security, and Environmental Conference, Houston, 21–23 March. SPE-141448-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141448-MS.
Sparks, D. L. 2003. Environmental Soil Chemistry. Academic Press.
Stepan, D. J., Shockey, R., Kurz, B. et al. 2010. Bakken Water Opportunities Assessment—Phase 1, Grand Forks, North Dakota: Energy and Environmental Research Centre, University of North Dakota.
Stumm, W. and Wollast, R. 1990. Coordination Chemistry of Weathering: Kinetics of the Surface-Controlled Dissolution of Oxide Minerals. Reviews of Geophysics 28 (1): 53–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/RG028i001p00053.
Walter, A. L., Frind, E. O., Blowes, C. J. et al. 1994. Modeling of Multicomponent Reactive Transport in Groundwater: 1. Model Development and Evaluation. Water Resources Research 30 (11): 3137–3148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/94WR00955.
Yadav, S. K. and Chakrapani, G. 2006. Dissolution Kinetics of Rock-Water Interactions and Its Implications. Current Science 90 (7): 932–937.
Yang, L., Grossmann, I. E., and Mauter, M. S. et al. 2015. Investment Optimization Model for Freshwater Acquisition and Wastewater Handling in Shale Gas Production. AIChE J 61 (6): 1770–1782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.14804.
Zhou, Q., Dilmore, R., Kleit, A. N. et al. 2015. Evaluating Fracturing Fluid Flowback in Marcellus Using Data Mining Technologies. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 3–5 February. SPE-173364-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173364-MS.