Integrated Primary and Thermal Development of a Large Extraheavy-Oil Field
- Raushan Kumar (Chevron) | Raman Jha (QRI) | Danny Rojas (Chevron) | Christopher Lolley (Chevron) | Mridul Kumar (Chevron)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- November 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 924 - 936
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Well configuration, Steam Injection, Probabilistic forecast, Extra heavy oil, Thermal methods
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 264 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Extraheavy-oil (XHO) reservoirs in South America represent some of the largest hydrocarbon accumulations (>500 billion bbl) in the world. Primary production (PP) that uses long horizontal wells is a commercially proved technology for XHO reservoirs. The expected ultimate recovery with primary production is generally less than 12% of original oil in place (OOIP), and thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is critical for increasing recovery to 30–60% OOIP. Economic and environmentally viable thermal development of these reservoirs will require the use of horizontal steam injectors. Our results reveal that continuous steam injection (CSI) with a horizontal injector placed vertically above a horizontal producer (CSI-HIHP) is a very effective method for XHO reservoirs, with high peak-oil rate and significantly high recovery. This study, the first of its kind for an XHO reservoir, outlines an integrated work flow to evaluate the production potential of a large XHO greenfield with PP followed by thermal exploitation. The work flow, based on a probabilistic framework [involving design of experiment (DOE), proxy methods, and Monte Carlo simulations], evaluates reservoir performance for the whole life cycle of the field under a range of uncertainties, and quantifies the impact of key parameters affecting the reservoir performance.
XHO reservoirs usually have significantly higher pressures than typical conventional heavy-oil reservoirs, where CSI has been applied commercially. Therefore, pressure in these reservoirs must be reduced before CSI can begin. Cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) after the initial stage of PP can be used to accelerate pressure reduction in the reservoir, while providing additional recovery. Our results demonstrate that geological features such as shale baffles have a significant impact on delaying pressure reduction during PP and CSS. Under a broad range of conditions investigated in this study, PP for 1 year followed by CSS for 4 years has been found to be successful in reducing pressure to the target pressure for CSI.
High pressure drop in the horizontal steam injector can cause pressure near the toe region of the injector to be lower than the producer pressure. This results in poor steam injection and poor steam-chest development in that region, thus greatly reducing the efficiency of the thermal-recovery process. We quantify pressure drop in a horizontal steam injector and its impact on the thermal performance and suggest a novel well configuration that uses two injectors for every long producer during CSI. The proposed configuration with a sequential development plan can significantly improve economics of the projects.
A novel probabilistic work flow for a full-field (FF) development plan (PP, CSS, and CSI) of XHO reservoirs provides robust production forecast during the entire life cycle. The work flow developed and the insights obtained would be very valuable in preparing effective exploitation plans and optimal facility design, a key economic variable in large projects of developing giant XHO reservoirs.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Batycky, J. 1997. An Assessment of In-situ Oil Sands Recovery Processes. J Can Pet Technol 36 (9). PETSOC-97-09-DAS. https://doi.org/10.2118/97-09-DAS.
Beattie, C. I., Boberg, T. C., and McNab, G. S. 1991. Reservoir Simulation of Cyclic Steam Stimulation in the Cold Lake Oil Sands. SPE Res Eng 6 (2). SPE-18752-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/18752-PA.
Buckles, R. S. 1979. Steam Stimulation Heavy Oil Recovery at Cold Lake, Alberta. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Ventura, California, 18–20 April. SPE-7994-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/7994-MS.
Dusseault, M. B. 2001. Comparing Venezuelan and Canadian Heavy Oil and Tar Sands. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 12–14 June. PETSOC-2001-061. https://doi.org/10.2118/2001-061.
EIA. 2015. Country Analysis Brief: Venezuela. http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/countries_long/Venezuela/venezuela.pdf
Feizabadi, S. A., Zhang, X. K., and Yang, P. 2014. An Integrated Approach to Building History-Matched Geomodels to Understand Complex Long Lake Oil Sands Reservoirs, Part 2: Simulation. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, Alberta, 10–12 June. SPE-170053-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170053-MS.
Friedmann, F., Chawathe, A., and Larue, D. K. 2003. Assessing Uncertainty in Channelized Reservoirs Using Experimental Designs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 6 (4). SPE-85117-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/85117-PA.
Hird, K. B. and Dubrule, O. 1998. Quantification of Reservoir Connectivity for Reservoir Description Applications. SPE Res Eval & Eng 1 (1). SPE-30571-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/30571-PA.
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/steam-pressure-drop-calculator-d_1093.html (accessed 16 March 2016).
International Energy Agency. 2014. World Energy Outlook. Paris: OECD/IEA.
Jiang, Q., Thornton, B., Russel-Houston, J. et al. 2010. Review of Thermal Recovery Technologies for the Clearwater and Lower Grand Rapids Formations in the Cold Lake Area in Alberta. J Can Pet Technol 49 (9). SPE-140118-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/140118-PA.
Kabir, C. S., Chawathe, A., and Jenkins, S. D. et al. 2004. Developing New Fields Using Probabilistic Reservoir Forecasting. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (1). SPE-87643-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/87643-PA.
McLennan, J. A. and Deutsch, C. V. 2005. Ranking Geostatistical Realizations by Measures of Connectivity. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, 1–3 November. SPE-98168-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/98168-MS.
Narahara, G. M., Spokes, J. J., Brennan, D. D. et al. 2004. Well Count Optimization Incorporating a Wide Range of Uncertainties for the Deepwater Agbami Field. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 3–6 May. OTC-16988-MS. https://doi.org/10.4043/16988-MS.
Oil & Gas Journal (OGJ). 2014. Worldwide look at Reserves and Production. http://www.ogj.com/articles/print/volume-112/issue-1/drillingproduction/worldwide-look-at-reserves-and-production.html.
PIPEPHASE. 2015. Lake Forest, California: Schneider Electric. http://software.schneider-electric.com/products/simsci/design/pipephase/.
Riveros, G. L. V. and Barrios, H. 2011. Steam Injection Experiences in Heavy and Extra-Heavy Oil Fields, Venezuela. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12–14 December. SPE-150283-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/150283-MS.
Scott, G. R. 2002. Comparison of CSS and SAGD Performance in the Clearwater Formation at Cold Lake. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and International Horizontal Well Technology Conference, Calgary, Alberta, 4–7 November. SPE-79020-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/79020-MS.
SPE, AAPG, and WPC et al. 2011. Guidelines for Application of the Petroleum Resources Management System (PRMS), page 130. http://www.spe.org/industry/docs/PRMS_Guidelines_Nov2011.pdf. (accessed 16 March 2016).
Thorne, T. and Zhao L. 2009. The Impact of Pressure Drop on SAGD Process Performance. J Can Pet Technol 48 (9). PETSOC-09-09-41. https://doi.org/10.2118/09-09-41.
Villarreal, T. and Herna´ndez, R. 2013. Technological Developments for Enhancing Extra Heavy Oil Productivity in Fields of the Faja Petroliferous del Orinoco (FPO), Venezuela. Presented at the AAPG Annual Convention and Exhibition, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 19–22 May.
Wolff, M. 2010. Probabilistic Subsurface Forecasting—What Do We Really Know? J Pet Technol 61 (5). SPE-118550-JPT. https://doi.org/10.2118/118550-JPT.