Models of Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractured Reservoirs
- Victor M. Ziegler (California Resources Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2019
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 16 - 28
- 2019.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Steamflood, fractured reservoirs
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 379 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Models for steam or hot-water injection into a fractured diatomite or shale reservoir are developed from existing analytic models of energy transport and countercurrent imbibition.
Radial convective heat flow through a horizontal fracture system is modeled with conductive heat flow into the low-permeability matrix. The flow geometry approximates hot-fluid injection into a five-spot pattern. Recovery mechanisms accounted for in the models include capillary imbibition and thermal expansion. Temperature dependence of viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) are included in the imbibition estimate. Laboratory data are needed to quantify the magnitude of the imbibition mechanism, which is usually the primary contributor to oil recovery. Reservoir properties representative of either the Belridge Diatomite or the Antelope Shale, two giant fractured oil reservoirs, are used for the model forecasts. Currently, however, only temperature-dependent imbibition data for diatomite reservoirs are available.
The steamflood model has been partially validated against a large-scale project in the Belridge Diatomite. By use of public-domain information, a reasonable comparison was obtained between the model and the field project during a 4-year injection period. Comparison with conventional thermal simulation was also performed, and it indicated reasonable agreement with the steamflood analytical model.
The models have been used to determine the key factors determining the success of thermal recovery in fractured, low-permeability reservoirs. Steam injection is shown to be superior to hot-water injection in heating the matrix. Key factors enhancing recovery include reduced fracture spacing, increased matrix permeability, and increased injection temperature. Model results indicate that steamflood recoveries of more than 40% of the original oil in place (OOIP) may be achieved by injection in diatomite containing light oil. Application to diatomites containing heavy oil also shows good performance. Successful application in diatomite reservoirs is forecast to be possible in the current low oil-price environment. Economic application in fractured shales, assuming similar imbibition behavior as in diatomites, would require a higher oil price because of the higher well costs and lower oil content relative to diatomite projects.
Because of the significant volumes of remaining oil in place (OIP) in both the diatomite and shale reservoirs, the application of thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to these resources represents the logical next step in steamflood development.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Bursell, C. G. and Pittman, G. M. 1975. Performance of Steam Displacement in the Kern River Field. J Pet Technol 27 (8): 997–1004. SPE-5017-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/5017-PA.
Buza, J. W. 2010. An Overview of Heavy Oil Carbonate Reservoirs in the Middle East. Search and Discovery Article 10277 (2010). Presented at the AAPG Convention, New Orleans, 11–14 April.
California Division of Oil, Gas and Geothermal Resources. 2015. Online Production and Injection, http://www.conservation.ca.gov/dog (accessed August 2015).
Harness, P., Tang, G-Q., Inouye, A. et al. 2014. Recovery Mechanism of Thermal Process in Naturally Fractured Tight Diatomite Heavy Oil Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170985-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/170985-MS.
Jennings, H. Y., Jr. and Newman, G. H. 1971. The Effect of Temperature and Pressure on the Interfacial Tension of Water Against Methane-Normal Decane Mixtures. SPE J. 11 (2): 171–175. SPE-3071-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3071-PA.
Johnston, R. M. and Shahin, G. T. 1995. Interpretation of Steam Drive Pilots in the Belridge Diatomite. Presented at the 1995 SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 8–10 March. SPE-29621-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/29621-MS.
Kootungal, L. 2014. Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas Journal 112 (1): 78–91.
Kovscek, A. R., Johnston, R. M., and Patzek, T. W. 1997. Evaluation of Rock/Fracture Interactions During Steam Injection Through Vertical Hydraulic Fractures. SPE Prod & Fac 12 (2): 100–105. SPE-29622-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/29622-PA.
Kumar, M. and Beatty, F. D. 1995. Cyclic Steaming in Heavy Oil Diatomite. Presented at the 1995 Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 8–10 March. SPE-29623-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/29623-MS.
Lauwerier, H. A. 1955. The Transport of Heat in an Oil Layer Caused by Injection of Hot Fluid. Applied Scientific Research 5 (2–3): 145–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03184614.
Malofeev, G. E. 1960. Calculation of the Temperature Distribution in a Formation When Pumping Hot Fluid Into a Well. Neft I Gaz 3 (7): 59–64.
Marx, J. W. and Langenheim, R. H. 1959. Reservoir Heating by Hot Fluid Injection. Petroleum Trans., AIME 216: 312–315. SPE-1266-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/1266-G.
Mohebati, M. H., Yang, D., and MacDonald, J. 2014. Thermal Recovery of Bitumen From the Grosmont Carbonate Formation—Part 1: The Saleski Pilot. J Can Pet Technol 53 (4): 212–223. SPE-171560-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/171560-PA.
Penney, R., Al Lawati, S. B., Hinai, R. et al. 2007. Presented at the 2007 SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 11–14 March. SPE-105406-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/105406-MS.
Prats, M. 1982. Thermal Recovery, SPE Monograph Series, Vol. 7. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Ramey, H. J., Jr. 1962. Wellbore Heat Transmission. J Pet Technol 14 (4): 427–435. SPE-96-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/96-PA.
Satman, A. 1988. Solutions of Heat- and Fluid-Flow Problems in Naturally-Fractured Reservoirs: Part 1—Heat Flow Problems. SPE Prod Eng 3 (4): 463–466. SPE-13748-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13748-PA.
Schembre, J. M., Tang, G.-Q., and Kovscek, A. R. 2006. Wettability Alteration and Oil Recovery by Water Imbibition at Elevated Temperatures. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 52 (1–4): 131–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.017.
Takahashi, S. and Kovscek, A. R. 2009. Spontaneous Countercurrent Imbibition and Forced Displacement Characteristics of Low-Permeability, Siliceous Shale Rocks. Presented at the 2009 SPE Western Regional Meeting, San Jose, California, USA, 24–26 March. SPE-121354-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/121354-MS.
Tang, G. Q. and Kovscek, A. R. 2004. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Temperature on Recovery of Heavy Oil From Diatomite. SPE J. 9 (2): 163–179. SPE-83915-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/83915-PA.
Tang, G.-Q., Inouye, T. A., Lowry, D. et al. 2012. Investigation of Recovery Mechanism of Steam Injection in Heavy Oil Carbonate Reservoir and Mineral Dissolution. Presented at the 2012 SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 19–23 March. SPE-153812-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/153812-MS.
Willhite, G. P. 1967. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Steam and Hot Water Injection Wells. J Pet Technol 19 (5): 607–615. SPE-1449-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1449-PA.
Zhang, L., Pieterson, R., Dindoruk, B. et al. 2014. A New and Practical Oil-Characterization Method for Thermal Projects: Application to Belridge Diatomite Steamflood. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (1): 26–36. SPE-165333-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/165333-PA.
Zhou, D., Jia, L., and Kamath, J. 2001. An Investigation of Countercurrent Imbibition Processes in Diatomite. Presented at the 2001 SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 26–30 March. SPE-68837-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/68837-MS.