Experimental Investigation on Permeability and Porosity Hysteresis of Tight Formations
- Tadesse W. Teklu (Colorado School of Mines) | Xiaopeng Li (Colorado School of Mines) | Zhou Zhou (China University of Petroleum, Beijing) | Hazim Abass (Colorado School of Mines)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 672 - 690
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- porosity hysteresis, Micro and nano Cracks, Tight formations, permeability hysteresis, Stress Dependent Permeability and Porosity
- 18 in the last 30 days
- 515 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The decrease of permeability and porosity with increasing net stress in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media is a well-known phenomenon to petroleum and geomechanics engineers. Conversely, permeability and porosity are observed to increase when net stress decreases; however, they typically follow a different path; this discrepancy is known as hysteresis. The trend of permeability and porosity hysteresis is a signature of porous media that depends on several chemical, physical, and mechanical properties. Understanding permeability and porosity hysteresis plays a significant role in production strategies of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The hysteresis effect on production strategies can be even more important in very-low-permeability reservoirs such as tight sandstone, tight carbonate, and shale/mudstone formations. The reason is that the stress change associated with permeability and porosity hysteresis can affect adsorption/desorption and diffusion-transport mechanisms that are among the main driving mechanisms in low- or ultralow-permeability reservoirs.
In this study, matrix permeability and porosity hysteresis of nano-, micro-, and millidarcy core samples are measured for a wide range of net stresses (500 to 4,500 psia). The matrix includes nano- and micrometer-sized cracks (fractures) that are open or mineral-filled (sealed) cracks. The nano- and microdarcy core samples are from the Niobrara, Bakken, Three Forks, and Eagle Ford formations. The millidarcy core samples are from Middle East carbonate, Indiana Limestone, and Torrey Buff Sandstone formations. Bakken, Three Forks, and Middle East carbonate core samples are from oil-producing reservoirs, whereas others are from outcrop. The major experimental observations of this study are that (a) the stress dependency and hysteresis of permeability and porosity were observed to be larger for nanodarcy cores compared with those of microdarcy and millidarcy core samples; (b) stress dependency and hysteresis of porosity are smaller than those of permeability; (c) pore shape, pore size and their distributions, and mineralogy affect the stress dependency and hysteresis of both permeability and porosity; and (d) increase in permeability with increasing temperature and permeability hysteresis through temperature loading and unloading were observed in organic-rich core sample from Eagle Ford.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Aguilera, R. 2014. Flow Units: From Conventional to Tight-Gas to Shale-Gas to Tight-Oil to Shale-Oil Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (2): 190–208. SPE-165360-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/165360-PA.
Alexandre, C. P. 2011. Reservoir Characterization and Petrology of the Bakken Formation, Elm Coulee Field, Richland County, MT. MS thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Al Ismail, M. I., Hol, S., Reece, J. S. et al. 2014. The Effect of CO2 Adsorption on Permeability Anisotropy in the Eagle Ford Shale. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 25–27 August. URTEC-1921520-MS. https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2014-1921520.
Anderson, D. M., Nobakht, M., Moghadam, S. et al. 2010. Analysis of Production Data From Fractured Shale Gas Wells. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 23–25 February. SPE-131787-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/131787-MS.
Athy, L. F. 1930. Density, Porosity, and Compaction of Sedimentary Rocks. AAPG Bull. 14 (1): 1–24.
Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E., and Lightfoot, E. N. 1960. Transport Phenomena. New York: Wiley.
Bustin, R. M., Bustin, A. M., Cui, A. et al. 2008. Impact of Shale Properties on Pore Structure and Storage Characteristics. Presented at the SPE Shale Gas Production Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, 16–18 November. SPE-119892-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/119892-MS.
Chalmers, G. R. L., Ross, D. J., and Bustin, R. M. 2012. Geological Controls on Matrix Permeability of Devonian Gas Shales in the Horn River and Liard Basins, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada. International Journal of Coal Geology 103: 120–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2012.05.006.
Chareonsuppanimit, P., Mohammad, S. A., Robinson, R. L. et al. 2012. High-Pressure Adsorption of Gases on Shales: Measurements and Modeling. International Journal of Coal Geology 95: 34–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2012.02.005.
Cho, Y., Ozkan, E., and Apaydin, O. G. 2013. Pressure-Dependent Natural-Fracture Permeability in Shale and Its Effect on Shale-Gas Well Production. SPE Res Eval & Eng 16 (2): 216–228. SPE-159801-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/159801-PA.
Churcher, P. L., French, P. R., Shaw, J. C. et al. 1991. Rock Properties of Berea Sandstone, Baker Dolomite, and Indiana Limestone. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Anaheim, California, USA, 20–22 February. SPE-21044-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/21044-MS.
Comisky, J. T., Santiago, M., McCollom, B. et al. 2011. Sample Size Effects on the Application of Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure for Determining the Storage Capacity of Tight Gas and Oil Shales. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 15–17 November. SPE-149432-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/149432-MS.
Davies, J. P. and Davies, D. K. 1999. Stress-Dependent Permeability: Characterization and Modeling. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-56813-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/56813-MS.
Dickinson, G. 1953. Geological Aspects of Abnormal Reservoir Pressures in Gulf Coast Louisiana. AAPG Bull. 37 (2): 410–432.
Dong, J. J., Hsu, J. Y., Wu, W. J. et al. 2010. Stress-Dependence of the Permeability and Porosity of Sandstone and Shale From TCDP Hole-A. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 47 (7): 1141–1157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2010.06.019.
EIA. 2016. Drilling Productivity Report for Key Tight Oil and Shale Gas Regions. http://www.eia.gov (accessed in January 2016).
Franklin Dykes, A. 2014. Deposition, Stratigraphy, Provenance, and Reservoir Characterization of Carbonate Mudstones: The Three Forks Formation, Williston Basin. Doctoral dissertation, Colorado School of Mines.
Gamero-Diaz, H., Miller, C. K., and Lewis, R. 2013. sCore: A Mineralogy-Based Classification Scheme for Organic Mudstones. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166284-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/166284-MS.
Gangi, A. F. 1978. Variation of Whole and Fractured Porous Rock Permeability With Confining Pressure. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 15 (5): 249–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(78)90957-9.
Heller, R., Vermylen, J., and Zoback, M. 2014. Experimental Investigation of Matrix Permeability of Gas Shales. AAPG Bull. 98 (5): 975–995. https://doi.org/10.1306/09231313023.
Hoholick, J. D., Metarko, T., and Potter, P. E. 1984. Regional Variations of Porosity and Cement: St. Peter and Mount Simon Sandstones in Illinois Basin. AAPG Bull. 68 (6): 753–764.
Hughes, D. J. 2014. Drilling Deeper: A Reality Check on US Government Forecasts for a Lasting Tight Oil and Shale Gas Boom. Post Carbon Institute, October 27, 2014.
Jarvie, D. M., Hill, R. J., Ruble, T. E. et al. 2007. Unconventional Shale-Gas Systems: The Mississippian Barnett Shale of North-Central Texas as One Model for Thermogenic Shale-Gas Assessment. AAPG Bull. 91 (40); 475–499. https://doi.org/10.1306/12190606068.
Jin, G., Pe´rez, H. G., Dhamen, A. et al. 2015. Permeability Measurement of Organic-Rich Shale—Comparison of Various Unsteady-State Methods. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175105-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175105-MS.
Jobe, T. D. 2013. Sedimentology, Chemostratigraphy and Quantitative Pore Architecture in Microporous Carbonates: Examples From a Giant Oil Field Offshore Abu Dhabi, UAE. PhD dissertation, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Jones, F. O. 1975. A Laboratory Study of the Effects of Confining Pressure on Fracture Flow and Storage Capacity in Carbonate Rocks. J Pet Technol 27 (1): 21––27. SPE-4569-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4569-PA.
Jones, F. O. and Owens, W. W. 1980. A Laboratory Study of Low-Permeability Gas Sands. J Pet Technol 32 (9): 1–631. SPE-7551-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/7551-PA.
Jones, S. C. 1997. A Technique for Faster Pulse-Decay Permeability Measurements in Tight Rocks. SPE Form Eval 12 (1): 19–26. SPE-28450-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/28450-PA.
Kamruzzaman, A. 2015. Petrophysical Rock Typing of Unconventional Shale Plays: A Case Study for the Niobrara Formation of the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin. MS thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Kapteijn, F., Bakker, W. J., Zheng, G. et al. 1994. Temperature- and Occupancy-Dependent Diffusion of n-Butane Through a Silicalite-1 Membrane. Microporous Materials 3 (3): 227–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/0927-6513(94)00035-2.
Karimi, S. and Kazemi, H. 2015. Capillary Pressure Measurement Using Reservoir Fluids in a Middle Bakken Core. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Conference, Garden Grove, California, USA, 27–30 April. SPE-174065-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174065-MS.
Klinkenberg, L. J. 1941. The Permeability of Porous Media to Liquids and Gases. API-41-200. In Drilling and Production Practice, 200–213. New York: American Petroleum Institute.
Kolodzie Jr., S. 1980. Analysis of Pore Throat Size and Use of the Waxman-Smits Equation to Determine OOIP in Spindle Field, Colorado. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 21–24 September. SPE-9382-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/9382-MS.
Kranz, R. L., Frankel, A. D., Engelder, T. et al. 1979. The Permeability of Whole Jointed Barre Granite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 16 (4): 225–234. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(79)91197-5.
Krishna, R. and Wesselingh, J. A., 1997. The Maxwell-Stefan Approach to Mass Transfer. Chemical Engineering Science 52 (6): 861–911. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(96)00458-7.
Kurtoglu, B., Ramirez, B., and Kazemi, H. 2013. Modeling Production Performance of an Abnormally High-Pressure Unconventional Shale Reservoir. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, USA, 12–14 August. URTEC-1581994-MS.
Kwon, O., Kronenberg, A. K., Gangi, A. F. et al. 2001. Permeability of Wilcox Shale and Its Effective Pressure Law. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 106 (B9): 19339–19353. https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000273.
Loucks, R. G., Reed, R. M., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2012. Spectrum of Pore Types and Networks in Mudrocks and a Descriptive Classification for Matrix-Related Mudrock Pores. AAPG Bull. 96 (6): 1071–1098. https://doi.org/10.1306/08171111051.
Lu, X. C., Li, F. C., and Watson, A. T. 1995. Adsorption Studies of Natural Gas Storage in Devonian Shales. SPE Form Eval 10 (2): 109–113. SPE-26632-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/26632-PA.
Ostensen, R. W. 1986. The Effect of Stress-Dependent Permeability on Gas Production and Well Testing. SPE Form Eval 1 (3): 227–235. SPE-11220-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/11220-PA.
Pittman, E. D. 1992. Relationship of Porosity and Permeability to Various Parameters Derived From Mercury Injection-Capillary Pressure Curves for Sandstone. AAPG Bull. 76 (2): 191–198.
Raghavan, R. and Chin, L. Y. 2004. Productivity Changes in Reservoirs With Stress-Dependent Permeability. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (4): 308–315. SPE-88870-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/88870-PA.
Reyes, L. and Osisanya, S. O. 2000. Empirical Correlation of Effective Stress-Dependent Shale Rock Properties. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 4–8 June. PETSOC-2000-038. https://doi.org/10.2118/2000-038.
Ruthven, D. M. 1984. Principles of Adsorption and Adsorption Processes. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Rutter, E. H., McKernan, R., Mecklenburgh, J. et al. 2013. Permeability of Stress-Sensitive Formations: Its Importance for Shale Gas Reservoir Simulation and Evaluation. Petro Industry News 14: 44–45.
Schmoker, J. W. and Halley, R. B. 1982. Carbonate Porosity Versus Depth: A Predictable Relation for South Florida. AAPG Bull. 66 (12): 2561–2570.
Sigmund, P. M. 1976. Prediction of Molecular Diffusion at Reservoir Conditions. Part 1—Measurement and Prediction of Binary Dense Gas Diffusion Coefficients. J Can Pet Technol 15 (2): 48–57. PETSOC-76-02-05. https://doi.org/10.2118/76-02-05.
Spearing, M., Allen, T., and McAuley, G. 2001. Review of the Winland R35 Method for Net Pay Definition and Its Application in Low Permeability Sands. Presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Edinburgh, Scotland, 17–19 September, SCA 2001-63.
Taylor, R. and Krishna, R. 1993. Multicomponent Mass Transfer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Terzaghi, K. 1943. Theoretical Soil Mechanics. New York: Wiley.
Tinni, A., Fathi, E., Agarwal, R. et al. 2012. Shale Permeability Measurements on Plugs and Crushed Samples. Presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 30 October–1 November. SPE-162235-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/162235-MS.
Vairogs, J., Hearn, C. L., Dareing, D. W. et al. 1971. Effect of Rock Stress on Gas Production From Low-Permeability Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 23 (9): 1–161. SPE-3001-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/3001-PA.
van Oort, E. 1994. A Novel Technique for the Investigation of Drilling Fluid Induced Borehole Instability in Shales. Presented at the SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering Conference, Delft, The Netherlands, 29–31 August. SPE-28064-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/28064-MS.
Walsh, J. B. 1981. Effect of Pore Pressure and Confining Pressure on Fracture Permeability. In International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 429–435.
Wang, F. P. and Gale, J. 2009. Screening Criteria for Shale-Gas Systems. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Trans. 59: 779–793.
Wang, F. P., Reed, R. M., John, A. et al. 2009. Pore Networks and Fluid Flow in Gas Shales. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124253-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124253-MS.
Warpinski, N. R. and Teufel, L. W. 1992. Determination of the Effective-Stress Law for Permeability and Deformation in Low-Permeability Rocks. SPE Form Eval 7 (2): 123–131. SPE-20572-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/20572-PA.
Zhang, T., Ellis, G. S., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2012. Effect of Organic-Matter Type and Thermal Maturity on Methane Adsorption in Shale-Gas Systems. Organic Geochemistry 47: 120–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2012.03.012.
Zhang D. 2016. Stress-Dependent Fracture Conductivity of Propped Fractures in the Stimulated Reservoir Volume of a Hydraulically Fractured Shale Well. MS thesis, Petroleum Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Zhou, Z., Abass, H., Li, X. et al. 2016. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Imbibition on Shale Permeability During Hydraulic Fracturing. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 29: 413–430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2016.01.023.