Optimizing Water-Injection Design in a Shallow Offshore Reservoir
- Torsten Clemens (OMV) | Gerhard Kienberger (OMV) | Mira Persaud (OMV) | Ajay Suri (University of Petroleum and Energy Studies) | Mukul M. Sharma (University of Texas at Austin) | Marcelo Boschi (OMV) | Alf M. Øverland (OMV)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 551 - 563
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- water injection, water quality, fracturing conditions, water temperature, facility design
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 324 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Water injection is commonly used to improve oil recoveries in depleting reservoirs. However, insufficient injectivity can result in water-injection projects being limited in injection rates, which can sometimes make them uneconomic. Implementing water-injection projects requires a multidisciplinary approach to optimize water-injection rates for reservoir-performance, cost, and well-design considerations.
The costs for the surface facilities are dependent on the required water quality, water temperature, and other operating parameters that are linked to the injectivity of water. A work flow including quantitative assessment of the injectivity development as a function of the operating parameters as well as the uncertain geomechanical and reservoir parameters can be used to improve the surface-facility design.
Such a work flow was applied to a shallow offshore field. The results showed that the base-case design of the facilities should be modified to avoid an increase of the flowing bottomhole pressure (BHP) above the minimum stress of the caprock. The effect of the various parameters on the BHP was investigated, and the sensitivity of the BHP to uncertain input parameters under different operating conditions was tested. The results indicated that the BHP does not exceed the BHP limit, and hence the injectivity is expected to be high enough for a sufficiently long period of time under a wide range of conditions.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Aristov, S., van den Hoek, P., and Pun, E. 2015. Integrated Approach to Managing Formation Damage in Waterflooding. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary, 3–5 June. SPE-174174-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174174-MS.
Bansal, K. M. and Caudle, D. D. 1992. A New Approach for Injection Water Quality. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington. DC, 4–7 October. SPE-24803-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/24803-MS.
Bennion, B. D., Bennion, D. W., Thomas. F. B. et al. 1994. Injection Water Quality – A Key Factor to Successful Waterflooding. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 12–15 June. PETSOC-94-60. https://doi.org/10.2118/94-60.
Brink, J. L., Patzek, T. W., Silin, D. B. et al. 2002. Lost Hills Field Trial – Incorporating New Technology for Reservoir Management. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77646-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/77646-MS.
Chaban, F. R., Sharma, M. M., Suri, A. et al. 2009. A Unified, Multidisciplinary Approach to the Planning and Design of Deepwater Waterflooding Projects. Presented at the 2009 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124857-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/124857-MS.
Clemens, T., Finkbeiner, T., Chiotoroiu, M.-M. et al. 2015. Reservoir Management of a low Permeability Off-Shore Oil Field - Water Injection into a Watered-Out Horizontal Well Under Fracturing Conditions. Presented at EUROPEC 2015, Madrid, Spain, 2–4 June. SPE-174352-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174352-MS.
Clifford, P. J., Mellor, D. W., and Jones, T. J. 1991. Water Quality Requirements for Fractured Injection Wells. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 16–19 November. SPE-21439-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/21439-MS.
De Paiva, R., Bedrikovetsky, P. G., Furtado, C. et al. 2006. A Comprehensive Model for Injectivity Decline Prediction During PWRI. Presented at the SPE Europe/EAGE Conference, Vienna, Austria, 12–15 June. SPE-100334-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/100334-MS.
Guan, L., Du, Y., Wang, Z. et al. 2005. Water Injectivity – What We Have Learned in the Past 30 Years. J Can Pet Technol 44 (5): 9–13. PETSOC-06-05-TB. https://doi.org/10.2118/06-05-TB.
Griffin, L. G., Wright, C. A., Demetrius, S. L. et al. 2000. Identification and Implications of Induced Hydraulic Fractures in Waterfloods: Case History HGEU. Presented at the SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, The Midlands, Texas, 21–23 March. SPE-59525-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/59525-MS.
Hofsaess, T. and Kleinitz, W. 2003. 30 Years of Predicting Injectivity after Barkman & Davidson: Where Are We Today? Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 13–14 May. SPE-82231-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/82231-MS.
Hustedt, B. and Snippe, J. R. 2010. Integrated Data Analysis and Dynamic Modeling Key to Understanding Complex Waterfloods: Case Study of the Pierce Field, North Sea. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (1): 82–94. SPE-132440-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/132440-PA.
Izgec, B. and Kabir, C. S. 2009. Real-Time Performance Analysis of Water-Injection Wells. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (1): 116–123. SPE-109876-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/109876-PA.
Khatib, Z. I. 1994. Prediction of Formation Damage due to Suspended Solids: Modeling Approach of Filter Cake Buildup in Injectors. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 25–28 September. SPE-28488-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/28488-MS.
Lee, K., Huh, C., and Sharma, M. M. 2011. Impact of Fracture Growth on Well Injectivity and Reservoir Sweep during Waterflood and Chemical EOR Processes. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October–2 November. SPE-146778-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/146778-MS.
Matveeva, T., Bergfjord, E. V., Lindgard, J. E. et al. 2015. Real Time Caprock Integrity Monitoring Becomes Reality. Oral presentation given at the 77th EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Madrid, Spain, 1–4 June.
Muskat, M. 1949. Physical Principles of Oil Production. New York City: McGraw Hill.
Ochi, J., Dexheimer, D., and Corpel, V. 2013. Produced Water Re-Injection and Uncertainties Assessment. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 5–7 June. SPE-165138-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165138-MS.
Palsson, B., Davies, D. R., Todd, A. C. et al. 2003. A Holistic Review of the Water Injection Process. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, The Hague, 13–14 May. SPE-82224-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/82224-MS.
Pang, S. and Sharma, M. M. 1997. A Model for Predicting Injectivity Decline in Water-Injection Wells. SPE Form Eval 12 (3): 194–201. SPE-28489-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/28489-PA.
Perkins, T. K. and Gonzalez, J. A. 1985. The Effect of Thermoelastic Stresses on Injection Well Fracturing. SPE J. 25 (1): 78–88. SPE-11332-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/11332-PA.
Rahman, M., Zannitto, P. J., Reed, D. A. et al. 2011. Application of Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology for Monitoring Injection Profile in Belridge Field, Diatomite Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Digital Energy Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 19–21 April. SPE-144116-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/144116-MS.
Rod, M. H., Zyweck, M., Dorn-Lopez, D. W. et al. 2005. Permanent Microseismic Monitoring System in a Long Horizontal Well. Presented at the 2005 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9–12 October. SPE-97075-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/97075-MS.
Santarelli, F. J., Skomedal, E., Markestad, P. et al. 1998. Sand Production on Water Injectors: Just How Bad Can It Get? Presented at the SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering, Trondheim, Norway, 8–10 July. SPE-47329-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/47329-MS.
Saripalli, K. P., Bryant, S. L., and Sharma, M. M. 1999. Role of Fracture Face and Formation Plugging in Injection Well Fracturing and Injectivity Decline. Presented at the 1999 SPE/EPA Exploration and Production Environmental Conference, Austin, Texas, 18 February–3 March. SPE-52731-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/52731-MS.
Sathyamoorthy, S., Priyandoko, P., Flatval, K. B. et al. 2003. Radical Approach to Water Injection Scheme for Barton. Presented at the SPE International Improved Oil Recovery Conference in Asia Pacific, Kuala Lumpur, 20–21 October. SPE-84885-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/84885-MS.
Sharma, M. M., Pang, S., Wennberg, K. E. et al. 2000. Injectivity Decline in Water Injection Wells: An Offshore Gulf of Mexico Case Study. SPE Prod & Fac 15 (1): 6–13. SPE-60901-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/60901-PA.
Suri, A. and Sharma, M. M. 2009. Fracture Growth in Horizontal Injectors. Presented at the 2009 SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 19–21 January. SPE-119379-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/119379-MS.
Suri, A. and Sharma, M. M. 2010. A Model for Water Injection Into Frac-Packed Wells. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (3): 449–464. SPE-110084-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/110084-PA.
Suri, A., Sharma, M. M., and Peters, E. J. 2011. Estimates of Fracture Lengths in an Injection Well by History Matching Bottomhole Pressures and Injection Profile. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (4): 385–397. SPE-132524-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/132524-PA.
van den Hoek, P. J. 2004. Impact of Induced Fractures on Sweep and Reservoir Management in Pattern Floods. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90968-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/90968-MS.
van den Hoek, P. J. 2005. Dimensions and Degree of Containment of Waterflood-Induced Fractures From Pressure-Transient Analysis. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (5): 377–387. SPE-84289-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84289-PA.
van den Hoek, P. J., Matsuura, T., de Kroon, M. et al. 1999. Simulation of Produced Water Reinjection Under Fracturing Conditions. SPE Prod & Fac 14 (3): 166–176. SPE-57385-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/57385-PA.
van Oort, E., van Velzen, J. F. G., and Leerlooijer, K. 1993. Impairment by Suspended Solids Invasion: Testing and Prediction. SPE Prod & Fac 8 (3): 178–184. SPE-23822-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/23822-PA.
Walser, D. W., Astakhov, D. K., and Stanley, G. R. 2009. A New Method for Vertical Leak Detection in Low to Moderate Permeability Flooded Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (5): 683–688. SPE-113076-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/113076-PA.
Zuluaga, E., Schmidt, J. H., Dean, R. H. et al. 2008. Containment of Vertical Tensile Region During Surfactant-Polymer Injection. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 17–19 June. PETSOC-2008-082. https://doi.org/10.2118/2008-082.
Zwaan, M., Hartmans, R., Schoofs, S. et al. 2012. EOR Field Management Through Well-Planned Surveillance. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-154620-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/154620-MS.