Swelling and Viscosity Reduction of Heavy Oil by CO2-Gas Foaming in Immiscible Condition
- Chanmoly Or (Kyushu University) | Kyuro Sasaki (Kyushu University) | Yuichi Sugai (Kyushu University) | Masanori Nakano (JAPEX) | Motonao Imai (JAPEX)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- April 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 294 - 304
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- foam swelling, Foamy oil, bubble volume density, foamy viscosity ratio, CO2
- 15 in the last 30 days
- 424 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
In this study, foaming of heavy oil generated by depressurization from saturated carbon dioxide (CO2) solution was studied because generating foamy oil has a possibility of developing an enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The experiments were carried out by with a heavy crude oil at CO2 pressure less than 10 MPa and temperature from 20 to 50°C. The swellings of the generated foamy oils increased from 36.8 to 47.5% with reducing viscosity ratio from 79 to 42%, comparing with original viscosity. Furthermore, the investigation shows that CO2 microbubbles in the foamy oil started nucleating at pressure less than 8.0 MPa during depressurizationfrom the saturation pressure of 9.97 MPa at 50°C, and the foamy oil started decreasing the apparent viscosity. By exposing generated foamy oil under the shear rate of 76.8 seconds-1 for 5 minutes, the bubble-volume density profile changes from broadband toward to Gaussian distribution caused by disappearing larger size of gas bubbles, where bubble diameter of the maximum probability density of the bubble-volume distribution reduced from 80 µm to less than 10 µm. However, reduction of viscosity ratio was almost kept even though the distribution was changed; this shows that apparent viscosity strongly depends on the microbubbles sized less than 10 µm in diameter. It was expected that CO2 foamy oil has a potential to improve the recovery ratio of heavy oil by making the residual oil flow out from the immobile zones because of its large apparent swelling and improving mobility in porous oil-flow.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Abivin, P., Henaut, I., Argillier, J.-F. et al. 2009. Rheological Behavior of Foamy Oils. Energy Fuels 23: 1316–1322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef8006646.
Bennion, D., Mastmann, M., and Moustakis, M. 2003. A Case Study of Foamy Oil Recovery in the Patos-Marinza Reservoir, Driza Sand, Albania. J Can Pet Technol 42: 21–28. SPE-03-03-01-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/03-03-01-PA.
Bernard, G., Holm, L. W., and Harvey, C. 1980. Use of Surfactant to Reduce CO2 Mobility in Oil Displacement. SPE J. 20: 281–292. SPE-8370-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8370-PA.
Blaker, T., Aarra, M., Arne, S. et al. 2002. Foam for Gas Mobility Control in the Snorre Field: The FAWAG Project. SPE Res Eval Eng 5: 317–323. SPE-78824-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78824-PA.
Bond, D. C. and Holbrook, O. C. 1958. Gas Drive Oil Recovery Process. US2866507 A (publication date); (filing date 24 December 1956).
DeCarlo, L. T. 1997. On the Meaning and Use of Kurtosis. Psychol. Methods 2: 292–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.2.3.292.
Fisher, D. B., Espidel, J., Huerta, M. et al. 1999. Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Tool for the Study of Foamy Oil Behavior for an Extra-Heavy Crude Oil. T2/Viscosity Correlation With Respect to Pressure. Transp. Porous Media 35: 189–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006578105518.
Ghaderi, S. M., Tabatabaie, S. H., Hassanzadeh, H. et al. 2011. Estimation of Concentration-Dependent Diffusion Coefficient in Pressure-Decay Experiment of Heavy Oils and Bitumen. Fluid Phase Equilibria 305: 132–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2011.03.010.
Goodarzi, N., Bryan, J., Mai, A. et al. 2005. Heavy-Oil Fluid Testing With Conventional and Novel Techniques. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 1–3 November. SPE-97803-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97803-MS.
Islam, M. R. and Chakma, A. 1990. Mechanics of Bubble Flow in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Ventura, California, USA, 4–6 April. SPE-20070-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20070-MS.
Javadpour, F. and Jeje, A. 2003. Micro-Model Experiments and Network Modelling of Bubble Growth in Foamy Oil Flow. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 10–12 June. SPE-2003-024-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2003-024-MS.
Kovscek, A. R., Tretheway, D. C., Persoff, P. et al. 1995. Foam Flow Through a Transparent Rough-Walled Rock Fracture. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 13: 75–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(95)00005-3.
Lin, Y., Zheng, L., Li, B. et al. 2015. A New Diffusion for Laminar Boundary Layer Flow of Power Law Fluids Past a Flat Surface With Magnetic Effect and Suction or Injection. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 90: 1090–1097. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.07.067.
Liu, P., Wu, Y., and Li, X. 2013. Experimental Study on the Stability of the Foamy Oil in Developing Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Fuel 111: 12–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.03.021.
Maini, B., Sarma, H., and George, A. 1993. Significance of Foamy-Oil Behaviour in Primary Production of Heavy Oils. J Can Pet Technol 32: 50–54. SPE-93-09-07-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93-09-07-PA.
Maini, B. 1996. Foamy Oil Flow in Heavy Oil Production. J Can Pet Technol 35: 21–24. SPE-96-06-01-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96-06-01-PA.
Maini, B. 1999. Foamy Oil Flow in Primary Production of Heavy Oil Under Solution Gas Drive. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, USA, 3–6 October. SPE-56541-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56541-MS.
Maini, B. 2001. Foamy-Oil Flow. J Pet Technol 53: 54–64. SPE-68885-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/68885-PA.
Marsden, S. S. and Khan, S. 1966. The Flow of Foam Through Short Porous Media and Apparent Viscosity Measurements. SPE J. 6: 17–25. SPE-1319-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1319-PA.
Or, C., Sasaki, K., Sugai, Y. et al. 2014. Experimental Study on Foamy Viscosity by Analyzing CO2 Micro-Bubbles in Hexadecane. Int. J. Oil Gas Coal Eng. 2: 11–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ogce.20140202.11.
Pacheco Roman, F. J. and Hejazi, S. H. 2014. Graphical Determination of the Henry’s Constant and the Diffusion Coefficient of Gases in Heavy Oils Using Late-Time Pressure-Decay Data. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170957-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170957-MS.
PROPATH. 2013. A Program Package for Thermophysical Properties of Fluids, Version 13.1. August 2008, Fukuoka, Japan.
Ratnakar, R. R. and Dindoruk, B. 2014. Measurement of Gas Diffusivity in Heavy Oils/Bitumens Using Pressure-Decay Test. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170931-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170931-MS.
Reza Etminan, S., Pooladi-Darvish, M., Maini, B .B. et al. 2013. Modeling the Interface Resistance in Low-Soluble Gaseous Solvents-Heavy Oil Systems. Fuel 105: 672–687. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.08.048.
Sheng, J. J., Hayes, R. E., Maini, B. B. et al. 1999. Modelling Foamy Oil Flow in Porous Media. Transp. Porous Media 35: 227–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006523526802.
Smith, G. 1988. Fluid Flow and Sand Production in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs Under Solution-Gas Drive. SPE Prod. Eng. 3: 169–180. SPE-15094-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15094-PA.
Stevens, J. E. and Martin, F. D. 1995. CO2 Foam Field Verification Pilot Test at EVGSAU: Phase IIIB–Project Operations and Performance Review. SPE Res Eng 10: 266–272. SPE-27786-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27786-PA.
Wang, J., Yuan, Y., Zhang, L. et al. 2009. The Influence of Viscosity on Stability of Foamy Oil in the Process of Heavy Oil Solution Gas Drive. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 66: 69–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.01.007.
Wilkinson, P. M., Van Schayk, A., Spronken, J. P. M. et al. 1993. The Influence of Gas Density and Liquid Properties on Bubble Breakup. Chem. Eng. Sci. 48: 1213–1226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(93)81003-E.
Yan, W., Miller, C. A., and Hirasaki, G. J. 2006. Foam Sweep in Fractures for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 282–283: 348–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.02.067.
Yin, G., Grigg, R., and Svec, Y. 2009. Oil Recovery and Surfactant Adsorption During CO2-Foam Flooding. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, USA, 4–7 May. SPE-19787-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/19787-MS.