Influence of Wettability on Residual Gas Trapping and Enhanced Oil Recovery in Three-Phase Flow: A Pore-Scale Analysis by Use of Microcomputed Tomography
- Stefan Iglauer (Curtin University) | Taufiq Rahman (Curtin University) | Mohammad Sarmadivaleh (Curtin University) | Adnan Al-Hinai (Curtin University) | Martin A. Fernø (University of Bergen) | Maxim Lebedev (Curtin University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,916 - 1,929
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- gas flooding, micro computed tomography, wettability, enhanced oil recovery
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 534 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
We imaged an intermediate-wet sandstone in three dimensions at high resolution (1–3.4 μm3) with X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) at various saturation states. Initially the core was at connate-water saturation and contained a large amount of oil (94%), which was produced by a waterflood [recovery factor Rf = 52% of original oil in place (OOIP)] or a direct gas flood (Rf = 66% of OOIP). Subsequent waterflooding and/or gasflooding (water-alternating-gas process) resulted in significant incremental-oil recovery (Rf = 71% of OOIP), whereas a substantial amount of gas could be stored (approximately 50%)—significantly more than in an analog water-wet plug. The oil- and gas-cluster-size distributions were measured and followed a power-law correlation N ∝ V–τ, where N is the frequency with which clusters of volume V are counted, and with decays exponents τ between 0.7 and 1.7. Furthermore, the cluster volume V plotted against cluster surface area A also correlated with a power-law correlation A ∝ Vp, and p was always ≈ 0.75. The measured τ and p-values are significantly smaller than predicted by percolation theory, which predicts p ≈ 1 and τ = 2.189; this raises increasing doubts regarding the applicability of simple percolation models. In addition, we measured curvatures and capillary pressures of the oil and gas bubbles in situ, and analyzed the detailed pore-scale fluid configurations. The complex variations in fluid curvatures, capillary pressures, and the fluid/fluid or fluid/fluid/fluid pore-scale configurations (exact spatial locations also in relation to each other and the rock surface) are the origin of the well-known complexity of three-phase flow through rock.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Al-Dhahli, A., Geiger, S. and van Dijke, M. I. J. 2012. Three-Phase Pore-Network Modeling for Reservoirs With Arbitrary Wettability. SPE J. 18 (2): 285–295. SPE-147991-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147991-PA.
Al-Mansoori, S. K., Iglauer, S., Pentland, C. H. et al. 2009. Three-Phase Measurements of Oil and Gas Trapping in Sand Packs. Adv. Water Resour. 32 (10): 1535–1542. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2009.07.006.
Amaechi, B., Iglauer, S., Pentland, C. H. et al. 2014. An Experimental Study of Three-Phase Trapping in Sand Packs. Transport Porous Med. 103 (3): 421–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-014-0309-4.
Armstrong R. T., Georgiadis A., Ott, H. et al. 2014. Critical Capillary Number: Desaturation Studied With Fast X-ray Computed Microtomography. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 (1): 55–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2013GL058075.
Armstrong, R. T., Porter, M. L. and Wildenschild, D. 2012. Linking Pore-Scale Interfacial Curvature to Column-Scale Capillary Pressure. Adv. Water Resour. 46 (September): 55–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.05.009.
Anderson, W. G. 1987a. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 1: Rock/Oil/ Brine Interactions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J Pet Technol 38 (10): 1125–1149. SPE-13932-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1987b. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 2: Wettability Measurement. J Pet Technol 38 (11): 1246–1262. SPE-13933-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13933-PA.
Anderson,W. G. 1987c.Wettability Literature Survey–Part 3: The Effects of Wettability on Electrical Properties of Porous Media. J Pet Technol 38 (12): 1371–1378. SPE-13934-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13934-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1987d. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 4: The Effects of Wettability on Capillary Pressure. J Pet Technol 39 (10): 1283–1300. SPE-15271-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15271-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1987e. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 5: The Effects of Wettability on Relative Permeability. J Pet Technol 39 (11): 1453–1468. SPE-16323-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16323-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1987f. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 6: The Effects of Wettability on Waterflooding. J Pet Technol 39 (12): 1605–1622. SPE-16471-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16471-PA.
Bear, J. 1988. Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. Courier Dover Publications.
Berg, S., Ott., H., Klapp, S. A. et al. 2013. Real-Time 3D Imaging of Haines Jumps in Porous Media Flow. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110 (10): 3755–3759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1221373110.
Beygi, M. R., Delshad, M., Pudugramam, V. S. et al. 2013. A New Approach to Model Hysteresis and Its Impact on CO2-EOR Processes with Mobility Control Strategies. Presented at the SPE Western Regional & AAPG Pacific Section Meeting 2013 Joint Technical Conference, Monterey, California, 19–25 April. SPE-165324-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165324-MS.
Blunt, M. J., Bijeljic, B., Dong, H. et al. 2013. Pore-Scale Imaging and Modelling. Adv. Water Resour. 51 (January): 197–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.03.003.
Blunt, M. J., Fayers, F. J. and Orr, F. M. 1993. Carbon Dioxide in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Energ. Convers. Manag. 34 (9–11): 1197–1204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0196-8904(93)90069-M.
Blunt, M. J., Zhou, D. and Fenwick, D. 1995. Three-Phase Flow and Gravity Drainage in Porous Media. Transport Porous Med. 20 (1): 77–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00616926.
Buades, A., Coll, B. and Morel, J.-M. 2005. A Non-Local Algorithm for Image Denoising. Proc., IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition 2005, San Diego, California, 20–25 June, Vol. 2, 60–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CVPR.2005.38.
Buckley, J. S., Liu, Y. and Monsterleet, S. 1998. Mechanisms of Wetting Alteration by Crude Oils. SPE J. 3 (1): 54–61. SPE-37230-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37230-PA.
Caubit, C., Bertin, H. and Hamon, G. 2004. Three-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Wettability Effect on Residual Saturations During Gravity Drainage and Tertiary Waterflood. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90099-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90099-MS.
Chaudhary, K., Bayani Cardenas, M., Wolfe, W. W. et al. 2013. Pore-Scale Trapping of Supercritical CO2 and the Role of Grain Wettability and Shape. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40 (15): 3878–3882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/grl.50658.
Cnudde, V. and Boone, M. N. 2013. High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography in Geosciences: A Review of the Current Technology and Applications. Earth-Science Reviews 123: 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.04.003.
Cuiec, L. E. 1991. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery. In Interfacial Phenomena in Petroleum Recovery, ed. N. R. Morrow, Chap. 9. New York City: Marcel Dekker.
Dias, M. M. and Wilkinson, D. 1986. Percolation With Trapping. J. Phys. A-Math Gen. 19: 3131–3146.
Dong, M., Dullien, F. A. L. and Chatzis, I. 1995. Imbibition of Oil in Film Form over Water Present in Edges of Capillaries with an Angular Cross Section. J Colloid Interf. Sci. 172 (1): 21–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1995.1221.
Dullien, F. A. L. 1991. Porous Media: Fluid Transport and Pore Structure. Academic Press.
Dumore, J. M. and Schols, R. S. 1974. Drainage Capillary-Pressure Functions and the Influence of Connate Water. SPE J. 14 (5): 437–444. SPE-4096-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4096-PA.
Egermann, P., Vizika, O., Dallet, L. et al. 2000. Hysteresis in Three-Phase Flow: Experiments, Modeling and Reservoir Simulations. Presented at the SPE European Petroleum Conference, Paris, 24–25 October. SPE-65127-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65127-MS.
Georgiadis, A., Berg, S., Maitland, G. et al. 2013. Pore-Scale Micro-Computed-Tomography Imaging: Nonwetting-Phase Cluster-Size Distribution During Drainage and Imbibition. Phys. Rev. E 88 (3): 033002–033011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.88.033002.
Gittins, P., Iglauer, S., Pentland, C. H. et al. 2010. Nonwetting Phase Residual Saturation in Sandpacks. Journal of Porous Media 13 (7): 591–599.
Golab, A., Romeyn, R., Averdunk, H. et al. 2013. 3D Characterisation of Potential CO2 Reservoir and Seal Rocks. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 60 (1): 111–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08120099.2012.675889.
Herring, A. L., Harper, E. J., Andersson, L. et al. 2013. Effect of Fluid Topology on Residual Nonwetting Phase Trapping: Implications for Geologic CO2 Sequestration. Adv. Water Res. 62A (December): 47–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2013.09.015.
Hirai, S., Okazaki, K., Yazawa, H. et al. 1997. Measurement of CO2 Diffusion Coefficient and Application of LIF in Pressurized Water. Energy 22 (2–3): 363–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-5442(96)00135-1.
Hirasaki, G. J. 1991. Thermodynamics of Thin Films and Three-Phase Contact Regions. In Interfacial Phenomena in Petroleum Recovery, ed. N. R. Morrow, Chap. 2. New York City: Marcel Dekker.
Iglauer, S., Favretto, S., Spinelli, G. et al. 2010. X-ray Tomography Measurements of Power-Law Cluster Size Distributions for the Nonwetting Phase in Sandstones. Phys. Rev. E 82 (5): 056315.
Iglauer, S. 2011. Dissolution Trapping of Carbon Dioxide in Reservoir Formation Brine—A Carbon Storage Mechanism. In Mass Transfer - Advanced Aspects, ed. H. Nakajima, Chapter 10, 233–262. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
Iglauer, S., Paluszny, A., Pentland, C. H. et al. 2011a. Residual CO2 Imaged With X-ray Micro-Tomography. Geophys. Res. Lett. 38 (21): L21403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049680.
Iglauer, S., Wuelling, W., Pentland, C. H. et al. 2011b. Capillary-Trapping Capacity of Sandstones and Sandpacks. SPE J. 16 (4): 778–783. SPE-120960-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/120960-PA.
Iglauer, S., Fernø, M. A., Shearing, P. et al. 2012. Comparison of Residual Oil Cluster Size Distribution, Morphology and Saturation in Oil-Wet and Water-Wet Sandstone. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 375 (1): 187–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2012.02.025.
Iglauer, S., Paluszny, A. and Blunt, M. 2013. Simultaneous Oil Recovery and Residual Gas Storage: A Pore-Level Analysis Using In-Situ X-Ray Micro-Tomography. Fuel 103 (January): 905–914.
Iglauer, S., Geng, C., Sarmadivaleh, M. et al. 2014. A Pore Scale Analysis of a Surfactant Flooding Procedure Using In-Situ X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography. Presented at the International Petroleum Conference, Doha, Qatar, 20–24 January 2014.
Iglauer, S., Pentland, C. H. and Busch, A. 2015. CO2 Wettability of Seal and Reservoir Rocks and the Implications for Carbon Geo-Sequestration. Water Resour. Res. 51 (1): 729–774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015553.
IPCC. 2005. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Jettestuen, E., Helland, J. O. and Prodanovic, M. 2013. A Level Set Method for Simulating Capillary-Controlled Displacements at the Pore Scale with Nonzero Contact Angles. Water Resour. Res. 49 (8): 4645–4661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20334.
Keller, A. A., Blunt, M. J. and Roberts, P. V. 1997. Micromodel Observation of the Role of Oil Layers in Three-Phase Flow. Transport Porous Med. 26 (3): 277–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006589611884.
Kumar, M., Fogden, A., Senden, T. et al. 2012. Investigation of Pore-Scale Mixed Wettability. SPE J. 17 (1): 20–30. SPE-129974-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129974-PA.
Kumar, M., Senden, T., Knackstedt, M. et al. 2009. Imaging of Pore Scale Distribution of fluids and Wettability. Petrophysics 50 (4): 311–321.
Lake, L. W. 2010. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Lide, D. R. 2007. CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics, 88th edition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Lorenz, C. D. and Ziff, R. M. 1998. Precise Determination of the Bond Percolation Thresholds and Finite-Size Scaling Corrections for the sc, fcc, and bcc Lattices. Phys. Rev. E 57 (1): 230–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.57.230.
McCaffery, F. G. and Bennion, D. W. 1974. The Effect Of Wettability On Two-Phase Relative Penneabilities. J Can Pet Technol 13 (4): 42–53. PETSOC-74-04-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74-04-04.
Moortgat, J., Sun, S. and Firoozabadi, A. 2011. Compositional Modeling of Three-Phase Flow with Gravity Using Higher-Order Finite Element Methods. Water Resour. Res. 47 (5). http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009801.
Morrow, N. R. 1976. Capillary Pressure Correlations For Uniformly Wetted Porous Media. J Can Pet Technol 15 (4): 49–69. PETSOC-76-04-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/76-04-05.
Morrow, N. R. 1990. Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery. J Pet Technol 42 (12): 1476–1484. SPE-21621-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21621-PA.
Morrow, N. R., Chatzis, I. and Taber, J. J. 1988. Entrapment and Mobilization of Residual Oil in Bead Packs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (3): 927–934. SPE-14423-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14423-PA.
Oak, M. J., Baker, L. E. and Thomas, D. C. 1990. Three-Phase Relative Permeability of Berea Sandstone. J Pet Technol 42 (8): 1054–1061. SPE-17370-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17370-PA.
Øren, P. E. and Pinczewski, W. V. 1995. Fluid Distribution and Pore-Scale Displacement Mechanisms in Drainage Dominated Three-Phase Flow. Transport Porous Med. 20 (1): 105–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00616927.
Øren, P. E., Billiote, J. and Pinczewski, W. V. 1992. Mobilization of Waterflood Residual Oil by Gas Injection for Water-Wet Conditions. SPE Form Eval 7 (1): 70–78. SPE-20185-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20185-PA.
Ortiz-Arango, J. D. and Kantzas, A. 2009. Visual Study of the Effect of Viscosity Ratio, Flow Rate and Porous Medium Topology on Two-Phase Relative Permeabilities. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 16–18 June. PETSOC-2009-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2009-168.
Pentland, C. H., El-Maghraby, R., Iglauer, S. et al. 2011. Measurements of the Capillary Trapping of Super-Critical Carbon Dioxide in Berea Sandstone. Geophysical Research Letters 38 (6): L06401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2011GL046683.
Pentland, C. H., Iglauer, S., Gharbi, O. et al. 2012. The Influence of Pore Space Geometry on the Entrapment of Carbon Dioxide by Capillary Forces. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 22–24 October. SPE-158516-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/158516-MS.
Pentland, C. H., Tanino, Y., Iglauer, S. et al. 2010. Residual Saturation of Water-Wet Sandstones: Experiments, Correlations and Pore-Scale Modeling. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-133798-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133798-MS.
Piri, M. and Blunt, M. J. 2004. Three-Phase Threshold Capillary Pressures in Noncircular Capillary Tubes with Different Wettabilities Including Contact Angle Hysteresis. Phys. Rev. E 70 (6). http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.70.061603.
Piri, M. and Blunt, M. J. 2005a. Three-Dimensional Mixed-Wet Random Pore-Scale Network Modelling of Two- and Three-Phase Flow in Porous Media. I. Model description. Phys. Rev. E 71 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.026301.
Piri, M. and Blunt, M. J. 2005b. Three-Dimensional Mixed-Wet Random Pore-Scale Network Modelling of Two- and Three-Phase Flow in Porous Media. II. Results. Phys. Rev. E. 71 (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.71.026302.
Qi, R., LaForce, T. C. and Blunt, M. J. 2009. A Three-Phase Four-Component Streamline-Based Simulator to Study Carbon Dioxide Storage. Computat. Geosci. 13 (4): 493–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10596-009-9139-9.
Rahman, T., Lebedev, M., Barifcani, A. et al. 2016. Residual Trapping of Supercritical CO2 in Oil-Wet Sandstone. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 469: 63–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.02.020.
Roof, J. G. 1970. Snap-off of Oil Droplets in Water-Wet Pores. SPE J. 10 (1): 85–90. SPE-2504-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2504-PA.
Schlüter, S., Sheppard, A., Brown, K. et al. 2014. Image Processing of Multiphase Images Obtained via Microtomography: A Review. Water Resour. Res. 50 (4): 3615–3639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014WR015256.
Sleep, B. E. and McClure, P. D. 2001. Removal of Volatile and Semivolatile Organic Contamination from Soil by Air and Steam Flushing. J. Contam. Hydrol. 50 (1–2): 21–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7722(01)00103-6.
Stauffer, D. 1979. Scaling Theory of Percolation Clusters. Phys. Rep. 54 (1): 1–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-1573(79)90060-7.
Suekane, T., Mizumoto, A., Nobuso, T. et al. 2006. Solubility and Residual Gas Trapping of CO2 in Geological Storage. Oral presentation given at the 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-8), Trondheim, Norway, 19–22 June.
Tanino, Y., and Blunt, M. J. 2013. Laboratory Investigation of Capillary Trapping Under Mixed-Wet Conditions. Water Resour. Res. 49 (7): 4311–4319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20344.
Tokunaga, T. K. and Wan, J. 2013. Capillary Pressure and Mineral Wettability Influences on Reservoir CO2 Capacity. Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 77 (1): 481–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.2138/rmg.2013.77.14.
van Dijke, M. I. J., McDougall, S. R. and Sorbie, K. S. 2001. Three-Phase Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Relationships in Mixed-Wet Systems. Transport Porous Med. 44 (1): 1–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010773606657.
Wildenschild, D. and Sheppard, A. P. 2013. X-Ray Imaging and Analysis Techniques for Quantifying Pore-Scale Structure and Processes in Subsurface Porous Medium Systems. Adv. Water Res. 51 (January): 217–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.07.018.
Youssef, S., Bauer, D., Bekri, S. et al. 2010. 3D In-Situ Fluid Distribution Imaging at the Pore Scale as a New Tool For Multiphase Flow Studies. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-135194-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135194-MS.
Zhou, D. and Blunt, M. 1998. Wettability Effects in Three-Phase Gravity Drainage. J. Petrol. Sci. Eng. 20: 203–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00021-7.