The Zakum Telesystem: An Application of Large-Scale SCADA Systems to a Major Offshore Oil Field
- Jamel M. Kahoul (Zakum Development Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production Engineering
- Publication Date
- November 1990
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 387 - 393
- 1990. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.5 Offshore Facilities and Subsea Systems, 4.1.4 Gas Processing, 4.4.2 SCADA, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 7.3.3 Project Management, 6.1.5 Human Resources, Competence and Training, 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 1.6 Drilling Operations
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 168 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Various types of supervisory-control and data-acquisition (SCADA) systems are in use in oil fields around the world, assisting field personnel in maintaining safe and profitable operations. The Upper Zakum personnel in maintaining safe and profitable operations. The Upper Zakum field, one of the largest offshore fields, requires a far more extensive SCADA system with higher levels of distribution than generally needed, This paper outlines the environment and extent of the field, emphasizing the paper outlines the environment and extent of the field, emphasizing the need for unmanned operation and the evolution of the Zakum telesystem to meet the special requirements. Specification and predesign phases are shown to be vitally important parts of the project, in both assessing the telesystem's final extent and predicting what the field operators need to control the field. The telesystem implementation is described in detail, including system architecture, operator facilities, hardware and software considerations, and various interfaces with other systems. The problems encountered during the project and their solutions are discussed, and conclusions are drawn for future projects. The need for the highest available level of technology and the likely consequences of compromising this need because of cost considerations are also discussed. Finally, recommendations are proposed for future selection of large-scale SCADA systems.
The Zakum Development Co. (Zadco) was set up in 1977, following the decision of the government of Abu Dhabi to develop and to produce oil from the Upper Zakum oil field. Because of the large extent and nature of the field, it was divided into four zones, each with wellhead platforms connected to a central satellite separator platform. These satellite platforms, in turn, were connected to a platform. These satellite platforms, in turn, were connected to a huge central complex, where all utility plants are located.
Supervision and control of all wellhead platforms, unmanned satellite separator platforms, and the central complex were envisaged to be carried out from a single control center situated at the top of the accommodation platform by a small team of operators. Therefore, a large SCADA system (telesystem) was needed to ensure uninterrupted safe production.
The Upper Zakum field is now under production, and the telesystem provides supervision and control of the field and plants from a single control center, largely fulfilling design objectives.
Upper Zakum Oil Field. The Upper Zakum field (Fig. 1), situated about 70 km offshore Abu Dhabi, covers an area of about 50 x 30 km. The Abu Dhabi Natl. Oil Corp. oversees the project, and Total Compagnie Francaise des Petroles manages it. The field overlies the lower Zakum reservoir, operated by a separate company using separate facilities. The nearby island of Zirku was selected for processing and storage installations.
Water depth in the field is typically 10 to 20 m, with 1-m waves. The climate is difficult: temperatures reach 45 degrees C, and humidity, which varies rapidly, can be 100%. Occasional sandstorms occur, and any moisture has a high saline content.
Because it covers a large area, the field has a low wellhead flowing pressure (WHFP)-typically 1.38 MPa-but does not have HIS. pressure (WHFP)-typically 1.38 MPa-but does not have HIS. Platforms. Wellhead Platforms. Seventy-five wellhead platforms Platforms. Wellhead Platforms. Seventy-five wellhead platforms were built to provide production and/or injection for the entire field. The three basic designs are for three, six, and nine drilling slots. Each slot is assigned to production or injection, depending on reservoir requirements. Production wells are completed with two production strings each. production strings each. In addition, 33 wellhead platforms are equipped with test separators to allow remote measurement of the GOR of any producing string.
Satellite Platforms. For operational convenience, and because of low WHFP, the field is divided into four zones. The wellhead platforms are connected to a satellite separation platform in each platforms are connected to a satellite separation platform in each zone. Of the four satellite platforms (Fig. 2), three are remote from the field's central complex. These satellite platforms perform gas/oil separation and transfer gas and oil to the Central complex by separate pipelines. The satellite platforms also are the distribution point for pipelines. The satellite platforms also are the distribution point for injection water to the wellhead platforms in each zone.
|File Size||685 KB||Number of Pages||7|