Disproportionate Permeability Reduction of Water-Soluble Silicate Gelants: Importance of Formation Wettability
- Reza Askarinezhad (University of Stavanger and DrillWell) | Dimitrios G. Hatzignatiou (University of Houston) | Arne Stavland (International Research Institute of Stavanger and DrillWell)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 362 - 373
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Mobility reduction, Water-Soluble Silicate Gelants, Disproportionate permeability reduction, Formation Wettability
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 258 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR) may provide field solutions to address high volumes of water production and efficiency of oil recovery in noncommunicating layered reservoirs. This work evaluates the laboratory-scale DPR effectiveness at different formation-wettability conditions by use of an environmentally friendly, water-soluble, silicate gelant. A robust, time/temperature-stable and easy-to-design water-soluble silicate-gelant system is used to conduct DPR treatments in oil- and water-wet cores by use of a newly established steady-state, two-phase chemical-system placement. The experimental procedure is applied to ensure the presence of moveable oil saturation at which the injected DPR fluid (gelant) gels in the treated zone and to quantitatively control the placement-saturation conditions in the formation. DPR treatments are conducted by use of a steady-state, two-phase (oil/gelant) placement to better control the water/oil saturation at which the silicate gel sets. The performance of water-soluble, silicate-based DPR treatments is evaluated by use of pretreatment and post-treatment two-phase (brine/oil) steady-state and unsteady-state permeability measurements.
Strongly water-wet Berea cores are chemically treated to alter their wettability to oil-wet, and measured-phase effective permeability curves are used to characterize the newly established core wettability. Treatment design should include filterability/injectivity and rheological studies of the DPR fluid to evaluate gelant interaction with the formation as well as gelation time and kinetics. Single-phase DPR fluid injectivity through Berea cores is excellent. At relatively high water cuts in water-wet cores, two-phase DPR fluid/oil injectivity is good and even better in oil-wet cores regardless of the water cut. At relatively low water cuts in water-wet cores, the injectivity is not as good as in higher water cuts, and the mobility reduction keeps increasing with the coinjection of the DPR fluid/oil.
DPR fluid/oil-placement experiments conducted at the same saturation conditions and water/oil ratio (WOR) showed that the ultimate oil-residual-resistance factor (RRF) in oil-wet cores is significantly lower than that in water-wet cores. This is mainly because of more-favorable oil-phase continuity and distribution in oil-wet media compared with the corresponding ones in water-wet formations. In water-wet cores, encapsulation of oil by gel may cause oil-phase discontinuities and porous-medium-conductivity reduction. Wettability tests have shown that silicate gel is strongly water-wet. Therefore, in oil-wet DPR treatments, formed gel in porous media yields a mixed-wet formation and a lower trapped-oil saturation compared with the water-wet formation.
In either wetting state, relative permeability hysteresis was insignificant during the post-DPR treatment-imbibition/drainage cycles. This also reflects stable gels during post-DPR treatment floods. DPR treatments conducted at high WOR in oil-wet cores have shown a minor gel “erosion” during the post-treatment two- and single-phase (water) injection; gel “erosion” ceased during oil injection. DPR treatments conducted at high WOR caused an increase in RRF of both water and oil phases regardless of the core’s wetting conditions; the DPR effectiveness was more pronounced in oil-wet cores than in water-wet ones.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Brooks, R. H. and Corey, A. T. 1964. Hydraulic Properties of Porous Media, Vol. 3, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (March).
Brooks, R. H. and Corey, A. T. 1966. Properties of Porous Media Affecting Fluid Flow. J. Irrig. Drain. E-ASCE 92 (2): 61–90.
El Essawy, W. M., Bin Hamzah, R., Malik, M. M. et al. 2004. Novel Application of Sodium Silicate Fluids Achieves Significant Improvement of the Drilling Efficiency and Reduce the Overall Well Costs by Resolving Borehole Stability Problems in East Africa Shale. Presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology Conference and Exhibition, Kuala Lumpur, 13–15 September. SPE-88008-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/88008-MS.
Elewaut, K., Stavland, A., Zaitoun, A. et al. 2005. Investigation of a Novel Chemical for Bullhead Water Shutoff Treatments. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Sheveningen, The Netherlands, 25–27 May. SPE-94660-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/94660-MS.
Grattoni, C. A., Al-Sharji, H. H., Dawe, R. A. et al. 2002. Segregated Pathways Mechanism for Oil and Water Flow through an Oil-Based Gelant. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 35 (3): 183–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(02)00239-5.
Hatzignatiou, D. G., Askarinezhad, R., Giske, N. H. et al. 2015. Laboratory Testing of Environmentally Friendly Sodium Silicate Systems for Water Management through Conformance Control. SPE Prod & Oper 31 (4): 337–350. SPE-173853-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/173853-PA.
Hatzignatiou, D. G., Helleren, J., and Stavland, A. 2014. Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Core-Scale Experiments of Silicate Gels for Fluid Diversion and Flow-Zone Isolation. SPE Prod & Oper 29 (2): 122–138. SPE-170240-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170240-PA.
Herring, G. D., Milloway, J. T., and Wilson, W. N. 1984. Selective Gas Shut-Off Using Sodium Silicate in the Prudhoe Bay Field, AK. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Bakersfield, California, 13–14 February. SPE-12473-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/12473-MS.
Karmakar, G. P., Grattoni, C. A., and Zimmerman, R. W. 2002. Relative Permeability Modification Using an Oil-Soluble Gelant to Control Water Production. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77414-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/77414-MS.
Kennedy, H. T. 1936. Chemical Methods for Shutting Off Water in Oil and Gas Wells. In Transactions, Vol. 118, Part 1, 177–186. SPE-936177-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/936177-G.
Krumrine, P. H. and Boyce, S. D. 1985. Profile Modification and Water Control with Silica Gel-Based Systems. Presented at the SPE Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry Symposium, Phoenix, Arizona, 9–11 March. SPE-13578-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/13578-MS.
Lakatos, I. and Lakatos-Szabo, J. 2012. Reservoir Conformance Control in Oilfields Using of Silicates: State-of-the-Arts and Perspectives. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-159640-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/159640-MS.
Lakatos, I., Lakatos-Szabo, J., Tiszai, G. et al. 1999. Application of Silicate-Based Well Treatment Techniques at the Hungarian Oil Fields. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-56739-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/56739-MS.
Lakatos, I. J., Lakatos-Szabo, J., Szentes, G. et al. 2015. New Alternatives in Conformance Control: Nanosilica and Liquid Polymer Aided Silicate Technology. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, Budapest, Hungary, 3–5 June. SPE-174225-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174225-MS.
Lake, L. W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Liang, J.-T. and Seright, R. S. 1997. Further Investigations of Why Gels Reduce Water Permeability More Than Oil Permeability. SPE Prod & Fac 12 (4): 225–230. SPE-37249-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/37249-PA.
Liang, J.-T., Sun, H., and Seright, R. S. 1995. Why Do Gels Reduce Water Permeability More Than Oil Permeability? SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (4): 282–286. SPE-27829-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/27829-PA.
Maini, B. B., Ionescu, E., and Batycky, J. P. 1986. Miscible Displacement of Residual Oil-Effect of Wettability on Dispersion in Porous Media. J Can Pet Technol 25 (3): 36–41. PETSOC-86-03-03. https://doi.org/10.2118/86-03-03.
Nilsson, S., Stavland, A., and Jonsbraten, H. C. 1998. Mechanistic Study of Disproportionate Permeability Reduction. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 19–22 April. SPE-39635-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39635-MS.
Penberthy, W. L. and Bayless, J. H. 1974. Silicate Foam Wellbore Insulation. J Pet Technol 26 (6): 583–588. SPE-4666-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/4666-PA.
Pham, L. T. and Hatzignatiou, D. G. 2016. Rheological Evaluation of a Sodium Silicate Gel for Water Management in Mature, Naturally Fractured Oilfields. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 138 (February): 218–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.11.039.
Quilon. 2015. Data Sheet, www.zaclon.com/pdf/quilon_datasheet.pdf (accessed June 2015).
Razavi, S. M. and Hassani, F. 2007. Preliminary Investigation into Gel Fill: Strength Development and Characteristics of Sand Paste Fill with Sodium Silicate. Presented at the American Rock Mechanics Association 1st Canada-US Rock Mechanics Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, 27–31 May. ARMA-07-197.
Robertson, J. O. and Oefelein, F. H. 1967. Plugging Thief Zones in Water Injection Wells. J Pet Technol 19 (8): 999–1004. SPE-1524-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/1524-PA.
Smith, L. R., Fast, C. R., and Wagner, O. R. 1969. Development and Field Testing of Large Volume Remedial Treatments for Gross Water Channeling. J Pet Technol 21 (8): 1015–1025. SPE-2217-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/2217-PA.
Stavland, A. 2010. How to Apply the Flow Velocity as a Design Criterion in RPM Treatments. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (2): 223–231. SPE-121850-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/121850-PA.
Stavland, A. and Nilsson, S. 2001. Segregated Flow is the Governing Mechanism of Disproportionate Permeability Reduction in Water and Gas Shutoff. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October. SPE-71510-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/71510-MS.
Stavland, A., Andersen, K. I., Sandoey, B. et al. 2006. How to Apply a Blocking Gel System for Bullhead Selective Water Shutoff: From Laboratory to Field. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 22–26 April. SPE-99729-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/99729-MS.
Stavland, A., Jonsbråten, H., Vikane, O. et al. 2011. In-Depth Water Diversion Using Sodium Silicate – Preparation for Single Well Field Pilot on Snorre. Proc., 16th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, 12 April. https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201404788.
Sydansk, R. D. and Romero-Zerón, L. 2011. Reservoir Conformance Improvement. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Sydansk, R. D. and Seright, R. S. 2007. When andWhere Relative PermeabilityModificationWater-Shutoff Treatments Can Be Successfully Applied. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 22–26April. SPE-99371-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/99371-MS.
Thompson, K. E. and Fogler, H. S. 1997. Pore-Level Mechanisms for Altering Multiphase Permeability with Gels. SPE J. 2 (3): 350–362. SPE-38433-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/38433-PA.
Tiffin, D. L. and Yellig, W. F. 1983. Effects of Mobile Water on Multiple-Contact Miscible Gas Displacements. SPE J. 23 (3): 447–455. SPE-10687-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/10687-PA.
Vail, J. G. 1928. Soluble Silicates in Industry. New York City: Reinhold Publishing Corporation.
Valiollahi, H., Ziabakhsh, Z., and Zitha, P. L. J. 2012. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Oil-Soluble Transport for Water Control in Porous Media. Comput. Geosci. 45 (August): 240–249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2011.11.021.