Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Study on Mechanisms of Oil Mobilization in Tight Sandstone Reservoir Exposed to Carbon Dioxide
- Haitao Wang (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Zengmin Lun (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Chengyuan Lv (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Dongjiang Lang (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Weiyi Pan (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Ming Luo (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Rui Wang (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec) | Shaohua Chen (Petroleum Exploration & Production Research Institute, Sinopec)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 750 - 761
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- tight reservoir, NMR, CO2, mechanism
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 189 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to investigate the exposure between carbon dioxide (CO2) and the sandstone matrix with a permeability of 0.218 md and a porosity of 9.5% at 40°C and 12 MPa (immiscible condition). Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) between oil and CO2 was 17.8 MPa, determined by slimtube test at 40°C. The exposure process between CO2 and the sandstone matrix included first, second, third, and fourth exposure experiments. Before each exposure experiment started, there was a CO2-injection stage with a CO2 injection under a constant pressure of 12 MPa and at a constant rate to keep fresh CO2 (concentration of CO2 is 100% in gas phase) in the system. Each exposure experiment ended when the obtained T2 spectrum was unchanged (total amount of oil in tight matrix remains constant). These processes were similar to CO2 huff 'n' puff. The results showed that (1) oil in all pores could mobilize as exposure time increases in the first exposure experiment. (2) The total original-oil-in-place (OOIP) recovery is 46.6% for oil in big pores (29 ms < T2 <= 645 ms)—this result is higher than the recovery (12.8%) for oil in small pores (T2 <= 29 ms). (3) Oil is mobilized fast in the initial exposure hours, and then the rate drops gradually until no more oil is produced. (4) Initially, the oil exists in pores with maximum relaxation times of 645 ms in the originally saturated core. After the CO2 injection, oil flows to pores with relaxation times slower than 645 ms, suggesting that oil in tight matrix is mobilized to the surface of core by swelling caused by CO2 diffusion. (5) The final OOIP recoveries of first, second, third, and fourth exposure experiments are 23.7, 7.2, 2.6, and 1.5%, respectively, and they decline exponentially. Oil mobilization in a tight-sandstone reservoir exposed to CO2 was observed by NMR T2 spectra under multiple exposure experiments. Mechanisms of oil mobilization were investigated (i.e., oil swelling, concentration-driven diffusion of hydrocarbons, and extraction of light components). The CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) with multiple injections under immiscible conditions is acceptable and satisfactory in a tight-sandstone reservoir. CO2 huff 'n' puff with optimized injection, soaking, and production process is an economic development method in a tight sandstone reservoir.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Callaghan, P. T. 1994. Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Coates, G. R., Xiao, L., and Prammer, M. G. 1999. NMR Logging: Principles and Applications. Houston: Halliburton Energy Services.
Eide, Ø., Ersland, G., Brattekas, B. et al. 2015. CO2 EOR by Diffusive Mixing in Fractured Reservoirs. Petrophysics 56 (1): 23–31. SPWLA-2015-v56n1a2.
Eide, Ø., Fernø, M. A., Alcorn, Z. et al. 2016. Visualization of Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery by Diffusion in Fractured Chalk. SPE J. 21 (1): 112–120. SPE-170920-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/170920-PA.
Ghedan, S. G. 2009. Global Laboratory Experience of CO2-EOR Flooding. Presented at the SPE/EAGE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, 19–21 October. SPE-125581-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/125581-MS.
Hawthorne, S. B., Gorecki, C. D., Sorensen, J. A. et al. 2013. Hydrocarbon Mobilization Mechanisms From Upper, Middle, and Lower Bakken Reservoir Rocks Exposed to CO2. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, 5–7 November. SPE-167200-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167200-MS.
Hoteit, H. and Firoozabadi, A. 2009. Numerical Modeling of Diffusion in Fractured Media for Gas-Injection and -Recycling Schemes. SPE J. 14 (2): 323–337. SPE-103292-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/103292-PA.
Huang, F., Huang, H., Wang, Y. et al. 2016. Assessment of Miscibility Effect for CO2 Flooding EOR in a Low Permeability Reservoir. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 145: 328–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.05.040.
Marschall, D., Gardner, J. S., Mardon, D. et al. 1995. Method for Correlating NMR Relaxometry and Mercury Injection Data. Presented at the 1995 SCA Conference, No. 9511.
Saidian, M. and Prasad, M. 2015. Effect of Mineralogy on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Surface Relaxivity: A Case Study of Middle Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Fuel 161: 197–206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.08.014.
Shyeh-Yung, J-G. J. 1991. Mechanisms of Miscible Oil Recovery: Effects of Pressure on Miscible and Near-Miscible Displacements of Oil by Carbon Dioxide. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 6–9 October. SPE-22651-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/22651-MS.
Siagian, U. W. R. and Grigg, R. B. 1998. The Extraction of Hydrocarbons From Crude Oil by High Pressure CO2. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 19–22 April. SPE-39684-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/39684-MS.
Song, C. and Yang, D. 2013. Performance Evaluation of CO2 Huff-n-Puff Processes in Tight Oil Formations. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, 5–7 November. SPE-167217-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167217-MS.
SY/T 5779. 2008. Analytical Method of Gas Chromatography on Saturated Hydrocarbons of Rock Chloroform Extract and Crude Oil. Beijing: NDRCC.
Tovar, F. D., Eide, Ø., Graue, A. et al. 2014. Experimental Investigation of Enhanced Recovery in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs Using CO2: A Look Ahead to the Future of Unconventional EOR. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 1–3 April. SPE-169022-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169022-MS.
Vega, B., O’Brien, W. J., and Kovscek, A. R. 2010. Experimental Investigation of Oil Recovery From Siliceous Shale by Miscible CO2 Injection. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-135627-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/135627-MS.
Wang, G. C. 1986. A Study of Crude Oil Composition During CO2 Extraction Process. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Oakland, California, USA, 2–4 April. SPE-15085-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/15085-MS.
Wang, H., Liao, X., Zhao, X. et al. 2014. The Study of CO2 Flooding of Horizontal Well With SRV in Tight Oil Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Energy Resources Conference, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 9–11 June. SPE-169967-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169967-MS.
Wang, H., Rezaee, R., and Saeedi, A. 2015. Evaporation Process and Pore Size Distribution in Tight Sandstones: A Study Using NMR and MICP. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 15: 767–773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeps.2015.08.124.
Yang, P., Guo, H., and Yang, D. 2013. Determination of Residual Oil Distribution During Waterflooding in Tight Oil Formations With NMR Relaxometry Measurements. Energy & Fuels 27 (10): 5750–5756. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef400631h.
Zekri, A. Y., Almehaideb, R. A., and Shedid, S. A. 2006. Displacement Efficiency of Supercritical CO2 Flooding in Tight Carbonate Rocks Under Immiscible Conditions. Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 12–15 June. SPE-98911-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/98911-MS.
Zhang, Y. P., Sayegh, S. G., Huang, S. et al. 2004. Laboratory Investigation of Enhanced Light-Oil Recovery by CO2/Flue Gas Huff-n-Puff Process. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 8–10 June. PETSOC-2004-021. https://doi.org/10.2118/2004-021.