A Methodology for Classifying Operating Regimes in Underbalanced-Drilling Operations
- Ulf Jakob F. Aarsnes (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Florent Di Meglio (MINES ParisTech) | Robert Graham (Well Advanced Solutions) | Ole Morten Aamo (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 423 - 433
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Stability, Severe Slugging, Underbalanced Drilling, Steady State Analysis, Operating Envelope
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 231 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
This paper proposes an extension to an existing operating-envelope technique used for underbalanced drilling (UBD) to enhance control of bottomhole pressure and inflow parameters. With the use of an implementation of the drift-flux model (DFM) with boundary conditions typically encountered in underbalanced operations (UBO), a steady-state analysis of the system is performed. Through this analysis, four distinct operating regimes are identified, and the behavior in each of them is investigated through steady-state calculations and transient simulations. In particular, the analysis reveals that a section of the operating envelope previously believed to be unstable/transient is, in fact, stable/steady when a fixed choke opening is used as an independent variable in place of a fixed wellhead pressure (WHP). This results in the steady-state operating envelope being extended, and gives an increased understanding of the well behavior encountered in UBO toward enabling the introduction of automated control. Finally, we investigate the mechanism behind severe slugging in UBO and argue that the cause is different from that of the slugging encountered in production and multiphase transport.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Aarsnes, U. J. F., Aamo, O. M., Hauge, E. et al. 2013. Limits of Controller Performance in the Heave Disturbance Attenuation Problem. In Control Conf. (ECC), 2013 European, 1071–1076. Zürich: IEEE.
Aarsnes, U. J. F., Di Meglio, F., Aamo, O. M. et al. 2014a. Fit-for-Purpose Modeling for Automation of Underbalanced Drilling Operations. Presented at the SPE/IADC Managed Pressure Drilling and Underbalanced Operations Conference and Exhibition, Madrid, Spain, 8–9 April. SPE-168955-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168955-MS.
Aarsnes, U. J. F., Di Meglio, F., Evje, S. et al. 2014b. Control-Oriented Drift-Flux Modeling of Single- and Two-Phase Flow for Drilling. In ASME Dyn. Syst. Control Conf., page V003T37A003, San Antonio, Texas, USA: ASME.
Aarsnes, U. J. F., Gleditsch, M. S., Aamo, O. M. et al. 2014c. Modeling and Avoidance of Heave-Induced Resonances in Offshore Drilling. SPE Drill Compl 29 (4): 454–464. SPE-173178-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173178-PA.
Åström, K. J. and Murray, R. M. 2010. Feedback Systems: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers. Princeton University Press.
Di Meglio, F. 2011. Dynamics and Control of Slugging in Oil Production. PhD thesis, ParisTech.
Eikrem, G. O., Aamo, O. M., and Foss, B. 2006. Stabilization of Gas-Distribution Instability in Single-Point Dual Gas Lift Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 21 (2): 252–259. SPE-97731-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97731-PA.
Eikrem, G. O., Aamo, O. M., and Foss, B. 2008. On Instability in Gas Lift Wells and Schemes for Stabilization by Automatic Control. SPE Prod & Oper 23 (2): 268–279. SPE-101502-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101502-PA.
Evje, S. and Fjelde, K. K. 2002. Hybrid Flux-Splitting Schemes for a Two-Phase Flow Model. J. Comput. Phys. 175 (2): 674–701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcph.2001.6962.
Evje, S. 2011. Weak Solutions for a Gas-Liquid Model Relevant for Describing Gas-Kick in Oil Wells. SIAM J. Math. Anal. 43 (4): 1887–1922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/100813932.
Fjelde, K. K., Rommetveit, R., Merlo, A. et al. 2003. Improvements in Dynamic Modeling of Underbalanced Drilling. Presented at the IADC/SPE Underbalanced Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 25–26 March. SPE-81636-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81636-MS.
Godhavn, J.-M. 2010. Control Requirements for Automatic Managed Pressure Drilling System. SPE Drill Compl 25 (3): 336–345. SPE-119442-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119442-PA.
Godhavn, J.-M. 2011. Drilling Seeking Automatic Control Solutions. In 18th IFAC World Congr. Milano, ed. B. Sergio, 10842–10850, Milano, Italy.
Graham, R. A. and Culen, M. S. 2004. Methodology for Manipulation of Wellhead Pressure Control for the Purpose of Recovering Gas To Process in Underbalanced Drilling Applications. Presented at the SPE/IADC Underbalanced Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 11–12 October. SPE-91220-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/91220-MS.
Guo, B. 2002. Balance Between Formation Damage and Wellbore Damage: What Is the Controlling Factor in UBD Operations? Presented at the International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 20–21 February. SPE-73735-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73735-MS.
Guo, B. and Ghalambor, A. 2002. An Innovation in Designing Underbalanced Drilling Flow Rates: A Gas-Liquid Rate Window (GLRW) Approach. Presented at the IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology, Jakarta, 8–11 September. SPE-77237-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77237-MS.
Hu, B. 2004. Characterizing Gas-Lift Instabilities. Trondheim, Norway: NTNU.
Ishii, M. 1977. One-dimensional drift-flux model and constitutive equations for relative motion between phases in various two-phase flow regimes. Technical report, Argonne, Illinois: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Jansen, F., Shoham, O., and Taitel, Y. 1996. The Elimination of Severe Slugging Experiments and Modeling. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 22 (6): 1055–1072. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(96)00027-4.
Khalil, H. K. 2002. Nonlinear Systems, third edition. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Krstic, M., Protz, J., Paduano, J. et al. 1995. Backstepping Designs for Jet Engine Stall and Surge Control. In Proc., 1995 34th IEEE Conf. Decision Control, Vol. 3, pages 3049–3055. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CDC.1995.478612.
Lage, A., Fjelde, K., and Time, R. 2000. Underbalanced Drilling Dynamics: Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Experiments. In Proc., IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drill. Technol., Vol. 8, pages 61–70, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Lage, A. and Time, R. 2002. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Upward Two-Phase Flow in Annuli. SPE J. 7 (3): 16–18. SPE-79512-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79512-PA.
Mykytiw, C., Davidson, I., and Frink, P. 2003. Design and Operational Considerations to Maintain Underbalanced Conditions With Concentric Casing Injection. Presented at the IADC/SPE Underbalanced Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, USA, 25–26 March. SPE-81631-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81631-MS.
Mykytiw, C., Suryanarayana, P., and Brand, P. 2004. Practical Use of a Multiphase Flow Simulator for Underbalanced Drilling Applications Design—The Tricks of the Trade. Presented at the SPE/IADC Underbalanced Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, USA, 11–12 October. SPE-91598-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/91598-MS.
Nguyen, C., Somerville, J., and Smart, B. 2009. Predicting the Production Capacity During Underbalanced-Drilling Operations in Vietnam. Presented at the IADC/SPE Managed Pressure. Drilling and Underbalanced Operations Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 12–13 February. SPE-122266-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122266-MS.
Pickles, R., Brand, P., and Savage, P. 2004. Utilization of Underbalanced Drilling Techniques to Exploit a Low-Pressure Reservoir in Indonesia. Presented at the SPE/IADC Underbalanced Technology Conference and Exhibition, Houston, USA, 11–12 October. SPE-91591-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/91591-MS.
Saponja, J. 1998. Challenges With Jointed-Pipe Underbalanced Operations. SPE Drill & Compl 13 (2): 121–128. SPE-37066-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37066-PA.
Shi, H., Holmes, J., Durlofsky, L. et al. 2005. Drift-Flux Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Wellbores. SPE J. 10 (1): 24–33. SPE-84228-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84228-PA.
Sinegre, L. 2006. Dynamic Study of Unstable Phenomena Stepping in Gas-Lift Activated Systems. PhD thesis, MINES ParisTech.
Suryanarayana, P., Smith, B. E., Hasan, A. K. et al. 2006. Basis of Design for Coiled-Tubing Underbalanced Through-Tubing Drilling in the Sajaa Field. SPE Drill Compl 21 (2): 125–132. SPE-87146-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87146-PA.
Taitel, Y. 1986. Stability of Severe Slugging. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 12 (2): 203–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0301-9322(86)90026-1.
Thorogood, J., Aldred, W. D., Florence, F. et al. 2010. Drilling Automation: Technologies, Terminology, and Parallels With Other Industries. SPE Drill Compl 25 (4): 419–425. SPE-119884-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119884-PA.
Udegbunam, J. E., Fjelde, K. K., Arild, O. Y. et al. 2013. Uncertainty-Based Approach for Predicting the Operating Window in UBO Well Design. SPE Drill Compl 28 (4): 326–337. SPE-164916-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164916-PA.
Udegbunam, J. E., Fjelde, K. K. R., Evje, S. et al. 2014. A Simple Transient Flow Model for MPD and UBD Applications. Presented at the SPE/IADC Managed Pressure Drilling & Underbalanced Operations Conference & Exhibition, Madrid, Spain, 8–9 April. SPE-168960-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168960-MS.
Wallis, G. B. 1969. One-Dimensional Two-Phase Flow. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Wiggins, M., Russell, J., and Jennings, J. 1996. Analytical Development of Vogel-Type Inflow Performance Relationships. SPE J. 1 (4): 355–362. SPE-23580-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23580-PA.
Xu, Z. G. and Golan, M. 1989. Criteria for Operation Stability of Gas-Lift Wells. (unsolicited). SPE-19362-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19362-PA.