Design and Demonstration of New Single-Well Tracer Test for Viscous Chemical Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Fluids
- Robert Fortenberry (Ultimate EOR Services) | Pearson Suniga (Ultimate EOR Services) | Mojdeh Delshad (Ultimate EORServices) | Bharat Singh (Kuwait Oil Company) | Hassan A. AlKaaoud (Kuwait Oil Company) | Charlie T. Carlisle (Chemical Tracers Incorporated) | Gary A. Pope (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,075 - 1,085
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Simulation , Single well tracer test, Carbonate, ASP, EOR
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 587 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Single-well-partitioning-tracer tests (SWTTs) are used to measure the saturation of oil or water near a wellbore. If used before and after injection of enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) fluids, they can evaluate EOR flood performance in a so-called one-spot pilot. Four alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) one-spot pilots were recently completed in Kuwait’s Sabriyah-Mauddud (SAMA) reservoir, a thick, heterogeneous carbonate operated by Kuwait Oil Company (KOC). UTCHEM (Delshad et al. 2013), the University of Texas chemical-flooding reservoir simulator, was used to interpret results of two of these one-spot pilots performed in an unconfined zone within the thick SAMA formation. These simulations were used to design a new method for injecting partitioning tracers for one-spot pilots. The recommended practice is to inject the tracers into a relatively uniform confined zone, but, as seen in this work, that is not always possible, so an alternative design was needed to improve the accuracy of the test.
The simulations showed that there was a flow-conformance problem when the partitioning tracers were injected into a perforated zone without confinement after the viscous ASP and polymer-drive solutions. The water-conveyed-tracer solutions were being partially diverted outside of the ASP-swept zone where they contacted unswept oil. Because of this problem, the initial interpretation of the performance of the chemicals was pessimistic, overestimating the chemical residual oil saturation (ROS) by up to 12 saturation units. Additional simulations indicated that the oil saturation in the ASP-swept zone could be properly estimated by avoiding the post-ASP waterflood and injecting the post-ASP tracers in a viscous polymer solution rather than in water. An ASP one-spot pilot using the new SWTT design resulted in an estimated ROS of only 0.06 after injection of chemicals (Carlisle et al. 2014). These saturation values were obtained by history matching tracer-production data by use of both traditional continuously-stirred-tank (CSTR) models and compositional, reactive-transport reservoir models.
The ability of the simulator to model every phase of the one-spot pilot operation was crucial to the insight of modified SWTT design. The waterflood, first SWTT, ASP flood, and the final SWTT were simulated using a heterogeneous permeability field representative of the Mauddud formation. Laboratory data, field-ASP quality-control information, and injection strategy were all accounted for in these simulations. We describe the models, how they were used, and how the results were used to modify the SWTT design. We further discuss the implications for other SWTTs.
The advantage of mechanistic simulation of multiple aspects of a one-spot pilot is an important theme of this study. Because the pore space investigated by the SWTTs can be affected by the previously injected EOR fluids (and vice versa), these interactions should be accounted for. This simulation approach can be used to identify and mitigate design problems during each phase of a challenging one-spot pilot.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Abdul Manap, A. A., Chong, M. O., Sai, R. M. et al. 2011. Evaluation of Alkali-Surfactant Effectiveness Through Single Well Test Pilot in a Malaysian Offshore Field Environment. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 19–21 July. SPE-144150-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144150-MS.
Al-Ajmi, M. F., Baroon, B. A., Al-Hamer, M. et al. 2007. Innovative Pattern Balancing and Waterflood Optimization of a Super Giant Carbonate Mauddud Reservoir, Sabriyah Field, North Kuwait. Presented at the SPE/EAGE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, 28–31 October. SPE-111406-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111406-MS.
Carlisle, C., Al-Maraghi, E., Al-Saad, B. et al. 2014. One-Spot Pilot Results in the Sabriyah-Mauddud Carbonate Formation in Kuwait Using a Novel Surfactant Formulation. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 8–11 March. SPE-169153-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169153-MS.
Deans, H. A. and Carlisle, C. T. 1986. Single Well Tracer Test in Complex Pore Systems. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-14886-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14886-MS.
Deans, H. A. and Carlisle, C. T. 2007. The Single-Well Chemical Tracer Test – A Method For Measuring Reservoir Fluid Saturations In Situ. In Petroleum Engineering Handbook, Vol. 5, ed. L. W. Lake. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Delshad, M., Pope, G. A. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2013. UTCHEM Version 13.0 Technical Documentation. Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Hernandez, C., Chacon, L., Anselmi, L. et al. 2002. Single Well Chemical Tracer Test to Determine ASP Injection Efficiency at Lagomar VLA-6/9/21 Area, C4 Member, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 13–17 April. SPE-75122-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75122-MS.
Hirasaki, G. J., van Domselaar, H. R. and Nelson, R. C. 1983. Evaluation of the Salinity Gradient Concept in Surfactant Flooding. SPE J. 23 (3): 486–500. SPE-8825-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8825-PA.
Huh, C. 1979. Interfacial Tensions and Solubilizing Ability of a Microemulsion Phase That Coexists with Oil and Brine. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 71 (2): 408–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(79)90249-2.
Huseby, O. K., Sagen, J. and Dugstad, O. 2012. Single Well Chemical Tracer Tests - Fast and Correct Simulations. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-155608-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/155608-MS.
Jerauld, G., Mohammadi, H. and Webb, K. J. 2010. Interpreting Single Well Chemical Tracer Tests. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129724-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129724-MS.
Khan, M. Y., Chetri, H., Saputelli, L. et al. 2014. Waterflood Optimization and Its Impact Using Intelligent Digital Oil Field (iDOF) Smart Workflow Processes: A Pilot Study in Sabriyah Mauddud, North Kuwait. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, 19–22 January. IPTC-17315-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17315-MS.
Liu, J., Pope, G. A. and Sepehrnoori, K. 1995. A High-Resolution, Fully Implicit Method for Enhanced Oil Recovery Simulation. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, 12–15 February. SPE-29098-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29098-MS.
Pope, G. A. and Nelson, R. C. 1978. A Chemical Flooding Compositional Simulator. SPE J. 18 (5): 339–354. SPE-6725-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6725-PA.