Insights Into Mobilization of Shale Oil by Use of Microemulsion
- Khoa Bui (Texas A&M University) | I. Yucel Akkutlu (Texas A&M University) | Andrei Zelenev (CESI Chemical-Flotek) | Hasnain Saboowala (CESI Chemical-Flotek) | John R. Gillis (CESI Chemical-Flotek) | James A. Silas (CESI Chemical-Flotek)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 613 - 620
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- shale oil, improved recovery
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 438 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Molecular-dynamics simulation is used to investigate the nature of two-phase (oil/water) flow in organic capillaries. The capillary wall is modeled with graphite to represent kerogen pores in liquid-rich resource shale. We consider that the water carries a nonionic surfactant and a solubilized terpene solvent in the form of a microemulsion, and that it was previously introduced to the capillary during hydraulic-fracturing operation. The water has already displaced a portion of the oil in place mechanically and now occupies the central part of the capillary. The residual oil, on the other hand, stays by the capillary walls as a stagnant film.
Equilibrium simulations show that, under the influence of organic walls, the solvent inside the microemulsion droplets enables not only the surfactant but also the complete droplet to adsorb to the interfaces. Hence, delivering the surfactant molecules to the oil/water interface is achieved faster and more effectively in the organic capillaries. After the droplet arrives at the interface, the droplet breaks down and the solvent dissolves into the oil film and diffuses. This process is similar to drug delivery at nanoscale.
Using nonequilibrium simulations based on the external force-field approach, we numerically performed steady-state flow measurements to establish that the solvent and the surfactant molecules play separate roles that are both essential in mobilizing the oil film. The surfactant deposited at the oil/water interface reduces the surface tension and acts as a linker that diminishes the slip at the interface. Hence, it effectively enables momentum transfer from the mobile water phase to the stagnant oil film. The solvent penetrating the oil film, on the other hand, modifies flow properties of the oil. In addition, as a result of selective adsorption, the solvent displaces the adsorbed oil molecules and transforms that portion of the oil into the free oil phase. Consequently, the fractional flow of oil is additionally increased in the presence of solvent. The results of this work are important for understanding the effect of microemulsion on flow in organic capillaries and its effect on shale-oil recovery.
|File Size||548 KB||Number of Pages||8|
Berendsen, H. J. C., Grigera, J. R., and Straatsma, T. P. 1987. The Missing Term in Effective Pair Potentials. J. Physical Chemistry 91: 6269–6271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j100308a038.
Bui, K., Akkutlu, I. Y., Zelenev, A. et al. 2015. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Adsorption From Microemulsions and Surfactant Micellar Solutions at Solid-Liquid, Liquid-Liquid, and Gas-Liquid Interfaces. Manuscript submitted to Energy and Fuels.
Champagne, L. M., Zelenev, A. S., Penny, G. S. et al. 2011. Critical Assessment of Microemulsion Technology for Enhancing Fluid Recovery From Tight Gas Formations and Propped Fractures. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 7–10 June. SPE-144095-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144095-MS.
Colombani, J., Galliero, G., Duguay, B. et al. 2002. A Molecular Dynamics Study of Thermal Diffusion in a Porous Medium. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 4: 313–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b106800h.
Crafton, J. W. 1998. Well Evaluation Using Early Time Post-Stimulation Flowback Data. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, USA, 27–30 September. SPE-49223-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49223-MS.
Crafton, J. W., Penny, G. S., and Borowski, D. M. 2009. Micro-Emulsion Effectiveness for Twenty-Four Wells, Eastern Green River, Wyoming. Presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Petroleum Technology Conference, Denver, USA, 14–16 April. SPE-123280-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/123280-MS.
Crafton, J. W. and Noe, S. 2013. Factors Affecting Early Well Productivity in Six Shale Plays. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, USA, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166101-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166101-MS.
Curbelo, F. D. S., Santanna, V. C., Neto, E. L. B. et al. 2007. Adsorption of Nonionic Surfactants in Sandstones. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 293: 1–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.06.038.
Denney, D. 1997. Reciprocal Productivity Index for Oilwell and Gaswell Evaluation. J Pet Technol 49 (12): 1349–1350. SPE-1297-1349-JPT. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1297-1349-JPT.
Green, D. W. and Willhite, G. P. 1998. Enhanced Oil Recovery. SPE Textbook Series Vol. 6, 239–263. Richardson, Texas, USA: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Hess, B., Kutzner, C., van der Spoel, D. et al. 2008. GROMACS 4: Algorithms for Highly Efficient, Load-Balanced, and Scalable Molecular Simulation. J. Chemical Theory and Computation 4: 435–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ct700301q.
Humphrey, W., Dalke, A., and Schulten, K. 1996. VMD: Visual Molecular Dynamics. J. Molecular Graphics 14: 33–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0263-7855(96)00018-5.
Jorgensen, W. L. and Tirado-Rives, J. 1988. The OPLS [optimized potentials for liquid simulations] Potential Functions for Proteins, Energy Minimizations for Crystals of Cyclic Peptides and Crambin. J. American Chemical Society 110: 1657–1666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00214a001.
Jorgensen, W. L., Maxwell, D. S., and Tirado-Rives, J. 1996. Development and Testing of the OPLS All-Atom Force Field on Conformational Energetics and Properties of Organic Liquids. J. American Chemical Society 118: 11225–11236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja9621760.
Levine, B. G., LeBard, D. N., DeVane, R. et al. 2011. Micellization Studied by GPU-Accelerated Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics. J. Chemical Theory and Computation 7: 4135–4145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ct2005193.
Noe, S. and Crafton, J. W. 2013. Impact of Delays and Shut-Ins on Well Productivity. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 20–22 August. SPE-165705-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165705-MS.
Paktinat, J., Williams, C., Pinkhouse, J. A. et al. 2006. Case Histories: Damage Preventions by Leakoff Control of Fracturing Fluids in Appalachian Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 15–17 February. SPE-98145-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98145-MS.
Penny, G., Pursley, J. T., and Holcomb, D. 2005a. Microemulsion Additives Enable Optimized Formation Damage Repair and Prevention. J. Energy Resources Technology 127: 233–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.1937419.
Penny, G. S., Pursley, J. T., and Holcomb, D. 2005b. The Application of Microemulsion Additives in Drilling and Stimulation Results in Enhanced Gas Production. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 16–19 April. SPE-94274-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94274-MS.
Penny, G. S., Zelenev, A. S., Long, W. et al. 2012a. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Proppants and Surfactants Used in Fracturing of Hydrocarbon-Rich Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8–10 October. SPE-159692-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159692-MS.
Penny, G. S., Crafton, J. W., Champagne, L. M. et al. 2012b. Proppant and Fluid Selection To Optimize Performance of Horizontal Shale Fracs. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 6–8 February. SPE-152119-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152119-MS.
Penny, G. S., Zelenev, A., Lett, N. et al. 2012c. Nano Surfactant System Improves Post Frac Oil and Gas Recovery in Hydrocarbon-Rich Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, USA, 14–18 April. SPE-154308-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154308-MS.
Ranatunga, R. J. K. U., Nguyen, C. T., Wilson, B. A. et al. 2011. Molecular Dynamics Study of Nanoparticles and Non-ionic Surfactant at an Oil-Water Interface. Soft Matter 7: 6942–6952. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C1SM05145H.
Rosen, M. J. and Kunjappu, J. T. Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, fourth edition. New York: Wiley.
Somasundaran, P. and Zhang, L. 2006. Adsorption of Surfactants on Minerals for Wettability Control in Improved Oil Recovery Processes. J. Petrol. Sci. & Eng. 52: 198–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.022.
Tummala, N. R., Shi, L., and Striolo, A. 2011. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Surfactants at the Silica-Water Interface: Anionic vs. Nonionic Headgroups. J. Colloid and Interface Science 362: 135–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2011.06.033.
Van Der Spoel, D., Lindahl, E., Hess, B. et al. 2005. GROMACS: Fast, Flexible, and Free. J. Computational Chemistry 26: 1701–1718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcc.20291.
Zelenev, A. S. and Ellena, L. 2009. Microemulsion Technology for Improved Fluid Recovery and Enhanced Core Permeability to Gas. Presented at the 8th European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 27–29 May. SPE-122109-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122109-MS.
Zelenev, A. S., Champagne, L. M., and Hamilton, M. 2011. Investigation of Interactions of Diluted Microemulsions With Shale Rock and Sand by Adsorption and Wettability Measurements. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 391: 201–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2011.07.007.