Discussion on the Effects of Temperature on Thermal Properties in the Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage (SAGD) Process. Part 1: Thermal Conductivity (includes associated Errata and Addendum)
- Mazda Irani (Suncor Energy) | Marya Cokar (Suncor Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 334 - 352
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), thermal conductivity, SOR, heat transfer, conduction
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 566 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Erratum Notice: This paper has been modified from its original version to include erratum SPE-178426-ER (https://doi.org/10.2118/178426-ER); correction to pages 337, 338, 342, and Table 1.
Addendum Notice: An addendum is available with this paper and can be accessed by means of the Supporting Information link on this page.
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the preferred thermal-recovery method used to produce bitumen from Athabasca deposits in Alberta, Canada. In SAGD, steam injected into a horizontal injection well is forced into the reservoir, losing its latent heat when it comes into contact with cold bitumen at the edge of a depletion chamber. Heat energy is transferred from steam to reservoir, resulting in reduced bitumen viscosity that enables the bitumen to flow toward the horizontal production well under gravity forces. Conduction is the main heat-transfer mechanism at the edge of the steam chamber in SAGD, and reservoir thermal conductivity is a key parameter in conductive-heat transfer. Conductive-heat transfer occurs at higher rates across reservoirs with higher thermal conductivity, which in turn affects the temperature profile ahead of the steam interface. Consequently, a reservoir with higher thermal conductivity will result in higher reservoir-heating rates, which lead to higher oil rates. However, when oil-sand reservoirs are heated from reservoir temperature to steam-chamber temperature, the thermal conductivity can decrease up to 25%, which affects the temperature profile and conductive heating at the edge of the steam-saturated zone known as the steam chamber. This study provides an analytical model that includes a temperature-dependent thermal-conductivity value. This novel approach is the first of its kind to incorporate a temperature-dependent thermal-conductivity value within an analytical SAGD model to predict temperature front, oil production, and steam/oil ratio (SOR).
Furthermore, if Butler’s (1985) model is used, the results reveal that the arithmetic average thermal-conductivity values at reservoir and steam temperatures could be used for temperature-profile prediction, which would result in an error of less than 1% for the range of SAGD applications. The results of this study suggest that the minimum error for oil rates depends on the viscosity/temperature correlation. The optimum thermal conductivity should be calculated at the temperature that gives dimensionless temperatures [i.e., (T – Tr)/(Tst — Tr)] varying between 0.75 to 0.85 for m-values [Butler-suggested power constants (Butler 1985, 1991; Butler and Stephens 1981)] between 3 and 5.6. This study also investigates the effect of including temperature-dependent thermal conductivity on SOR variation and suggests that for both laterally expanding and angularly expanding reservoirs the SOR is independent of the thermal conductivity.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||20|
Akin, S. 2005. Mathematical Modeling of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (5): 372–376. SPE-86963-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86963-PA.
Anand, J., Somerton, W. H., and Gomaa, E. 1973. Predicting Thermal Conductivities of Formations From Other Known Properties. SPE J. 13 (5): 267–273. SPE-4171-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4171-PA.
Azad, A. and Chalaturnyk, R. J. 2010. A Mathematical Improvement to SAGD Using Geomechanical Modelling. J Can Pet Technol 49 (10): 53–64. SPE-141303-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141303-PA.
Bachrach, R., Dvorkin, J. and Nur, A. M. 2000. Seismic Velocities and Poisson’s Ratio of Shallow Unconsolidated Sands. Geophysics 65 (2): 559–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.1444751.
Birch, F., Clark, H. 1940. The Thermal Conductivity of Rocks and Its Dependence Upon Temperature and Composition. American Journal of Science 238 (8): 529–558. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/ajs.238.8.529.
Bland, W. F. and Davidson, R. L. 1967. Petroleum Processing Handbook. New York City: McGraw-Hill.
Blesh, C. J., Kulacki F. A., and Christensen R. N. 1983. Application of Integral Methods to Prediction of Heat Transfer from a Nuclear Waste Repository. Open file report ONWI-495, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio. PC A06/MF A01 as DE84001914, 15 (3), Ref. Number: 15010620, 109 pages.
Butler, R. M. 1985. A New Approach to the Modelling of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Can Pet Technol 24 (3): 42–51. PETSOC-85-03-01. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/85-03-01.
Butler, R. M. 1991. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Butler, R. M. and Stephens, D. J. 1981. The Gravity Drainage of Steam-Heated Heavy Oil to Parallel Horizontal Wells. J Can Pet Technol 20 (2): 90–96. PETSOC-81-02-07. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81-02-07.
Butler, R. M., McNab, G. S. and Lo, H. Y. 1981. Theoritical Studies on the Gravity Drainag of Heavy Oil During Steam Heating. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 59 (2): 455–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450590407.
Cargoe, C. S. 1929. NBS/NIST Miscellaneous Publication No. 97, US Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.
Chalaturnyk, R. 1996. Geomechanics of the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. PhD dissertation, University of Alberta, Canada.
Chen, Q., Gerritsen, M. G., and Kovscek, A. R. 2007. Effects of Reservoir Heterogeneities on the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Process. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11–14 November. SPE-109873-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109873-MS.
Chung, K. H. and Butler, R. M. 1988. Geometrical Effect of Steam Injection on the Formation of Emulsions in the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Process. J Can Pet Technol 27 (1): 36–42. PETSOC-88-01-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88-01-02.
Clark, S. P. Jr (ed.), 1966. Handbook of Physical Constants, revised edition. Memoir 97, Washington, DC: Geological Society of America.
Clauser C. and Huenges E. 1995. Thermal Conductivity of Rocks and Minerals. In Rock Physics and Phase Relations: A Handbook of Physical Constants, ed. T. J. Ahrens, 105–126, American Geophysical Union, Reference Shelf 3.
Das, S. K. 2005. Wellbore Hydraulics in a SAGD Well Pair. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 1–3 November. SPE-97922-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97922-MS.
DeVries, D. A. 1952. Thermal conductivity of soil. Mededelingen van de Landbouwhogescholte Wageningen 52 (1): 1–73.
Dusseault, M. B. 2001. Comparing Venezuelan and Canadian Heavy Oil and Tar Sands. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 12–14 June. PETSOC-2001-061. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2001-061.
Edmondson, T. A. 1961. Thermal Diffusivity of Sedimentary Rocks Subjected to Simulated Overburden Pressures. MSc thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California.
Edmunds, N. 1999. On the Difficult Birth of SAGD. J Can Pet Technol 38 (1): 14–24 (discussion/reply follows paper). PETSOC-99-01-DA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99-01-DA.
Edmunds, N. 2000. Investigation of SAGD Steam Trap Control in Two and Three Dimensions. J Can Pet Technol 39 (1): 30–40. PETSOC-00-01-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/00-01-02.
Edmunds, N. and Peterson, J. 2007. A Unified Model for Prediction of CSOR in Steam-Based Bitumen Recovery. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 12–14 June. PETSOC-2007-027. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2007-027.
Edmunds, N., Kovalsky, J. A., Gittins, S. D., et al. 1994. Review of Phase A Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage Test. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (2): 119–124. SPE-21529-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21529-PA.
Farouq Ali, S. M. 1997. Is There Life After SAGD? J Can Pet Technol 36 (6): 20–24. PETSOC-97-06-DAS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97-06-DAS.
Irani, M. and Gates, I. 2013. Understanding the Convection Heat Transfer Mechanism in Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Process. SPE J. 18 (6): 1202–1215. SPE-167258-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167258-PA.
Irani, M. and Gates, I. 2014. On the Stability of the Edge of a Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Steam Chamber. SPE J. 19 (2): 280–288. SPE-167260-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167260-PA.
Irani, M. and Ghannadi, S. 2013. Understanding the Heat-Transfer Mechanism in the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage (SAGD) Process and Comparing the Conduction and Convection Flux in Bitumen Reservoirs. SPE J. 18 (1): 134–145. SPE-163079-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163079-PA.
Ito, Y. and Suzuki, S. 1996. Numerical Simulation of the SAGD Process in the Hangingstone Oil Sands Reservoir. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 10–12 June. PETSOC-96-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96-57.
Ito, Y. and Suzuki, S. 1999. Numerical Simulation of the SAGD Process in the Hangingstone Oil-sands Reservoir. J Can Pet Technol 38 (9): 27–35. PETSOC-99-09-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99-09-02.
Ito, Y., Suzuki, S. and Yamada, H. 1998. Effect of Reservoir Parameter on Oil Rates and Steam Oil Ratios in SAGD Projects. Oral presentation given at the 7th UNITAR International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Beijing, 27–30 October.
Jacobs, F. A., Donnelly, J. K., and Stanislav, J. 1980. Viscosity of Gas-Saturated Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 19 (4): 46–50. PETSOC-80-04-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80-04-03.
Karim, G. A. and Hanafi, A. 1981. The Thermal Conductivity of Oil-Sands. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 59 (4): 461–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450590408.
Khan, A. M. 1961. A Thermoelectric Method forMeasurement of Steady State Thermal Conductivity of Rocks. MSc thesis, University of California, Berkeley, California.
Krupiczka, R. 1967. Analysis of Thermal Conductivity in Granular Materials. Int. Chem. Eng. 7 (1): 122–144.
Kunii, D. and Smith, J. M. 1960. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Porous Rocks. AIChE J. 6 (1): 71–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690060115.
Lindberg, W. R., Thomas, R. R., and Christensen, R. J. 1985. Measurements of Specific Heat, Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Utah Tar Sands. Fuel 64 (1): 80–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(85)90283-2.
Lorincz, J. L. 1980. Summary Report of Heat Transfer Cell Design. Internal Report, Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, Canada.
Lubimova, E. A. 1968. Thermal History of the Earth. In: The Earth’s Crust and Upper Mantle. American Geophysical Union. Geophysical Monograph Series 13: 63–77.
Mattison, B. W. 1987. Ichnology, Paleontology and Depositional History of the Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation: Athabasca Oil Sands Area, Northeastern Alberta. MSc thesis, University of Alberta, 437 p.
Moss, S. A. 1903. General Law for Vapor Pressures. Phys. Rev. 16: 356–363.
Nukhaev, M., Pimenov, V., Shandrygin, A., et al. 2006. A New Analytical Model for the SAGD Production Phase. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24–27 September. SPE-102084-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102084-MS.
Poling, B. E., Prausnitz, J. M. and O’Connell, J. P. 2001. The Properties of Gases and Liquids, fifth edition. New York City:McGraw-Hill Companies.
Powell, R. W., Ho, C. Y. and Liley, P. E, 1966. Thermal Conductivity of Selected Materials, National Standard Reference Data Series, National Bureau of Standards–8, Category 5–Thermodynamic and Transport Properties, Washington, DC, November 1966.
Rajeshwar, K., Jones, D. B. and DuBow, J. B. 1982. Thermophysical Characterization of Oil-Sands. 1. Specific Heats. Fuel 61 (3): 237–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-2361(82)90118-1.
Reis, J. C. 1992. A Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Model for Tar Sands: Linear Geometry. J Can Pet Technol 31 (10): 14–20. PETSOC-92-10-01. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92-10-01.
Scott, D. and Seto, A. C. 1986. Thermal Property Measurements on Oil-Sands. J Can Pet Technol 25 (6): 70–77. PETSOC-86-06-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86-06-06.
Schumann, T. E. and Voss, V. 1934. Heat Flow Through Granulated Materials. Fuel 13: 249–256.
Seto, A. C. and Bharatha, S. 1991. Thermal Conductivity Estimation from Temperature Logs. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations Symposium, Bakersfield, California, 7–8 February. SPE-21542-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21542-MS.
Sharma, J. and Gates, I. D. 2011. Convection at the Edge of a Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Steam Chamber. SPE J. 16 (3): 503–512. SPE-142432-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142432-PA.
Smith-Magowan, D., Skauge, A. and Helpler, L. G. 1982. Specific Heats of Athabasca Oil-sands and Components. J Can Pet Technol 21 (3): 28–32. PETSOC-82-03-02. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/82-03-02.
Somerton, W. H., Keese, J. A. and Chu, S. L. 1974. Thermal Behavior of Unconsolidated Oil-Sands. SPE J. 14 (5): 513–521. SPE-4506-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4506-PA.
Walton, K. 1987. The Effective Elastic Moduli of a Random Pack of Spheres. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 35 (2): 213–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-5096(87)90036-6.
Woodside, W. and Messmer, J. H. 1961. Thermal Conductivity of Porous Media. J. Appl. Phys. 32 (9): 815–823. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/p58-087.
Woodside, W. and Messmer, J. H. 1961. Thermal Conductivity of Porous Media. II. Consolidated Rocks. J. Appl. Phys. 32 (9): 1699–1706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1728420.
Zoth, G., and Ha¨nel, R. 1988. Appendix. In Handbook of Terrestrial Heat-Flow Density Determination, eds. R. Haenel, L. Rybach, L. Stegena, 449–466. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.