Laboratory Studies on Fluid-Recovery Enhancement and Mitigation of Phase Trapping by Use of Microemulsion in Gas Sandstone Formations
- Ameneh Rostami (Texas A&M University) | Duy T. Nguyen (Nalco Champion) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 120 - 132
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- fracturing, microemulsions, water blockage, condensate banking, tight formations
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 364 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
One of the challenges in slickwater fracturing of gas reservoirs is post-treatment fluid recovery. More than 60% of the injected fluid remains in the critical near-wellbore region and has a significant negative impact on the relative permeability to gas and well productivity. The trapping of water could be caused by capillary forces around the fractured formation.
Commonly available surfactants are added to slickwater to reduce surface tension between the treating fluids and gas. The problem with surfactants is that, upon exposure to the formation, they adsorb on the surface of the rock.
The addition of microemulsions to the fracturing fluids can result in a reduction in the pressure needed to displace injected fluids and/or condensate from the formations. This alteration of the fracturing fluid effectively reduces the capillary forces in the near-wellbore region, and in the case of fracturing, the fluids that have been trapped in the region surrounding the fracture. This will result in the removal of water and condensate blocks, as well as the mitigation of phase trapping, and therefore, an increase in permeability to gas.
This paper examines the effectiveness of microemulsions in the improvement of fluid recovery by use of sandstone cores with permeability greater then 10 md. Compatibility tests were performed for microemulsions to investigate their compatibility with the condensate and stability upon dilution with brine. One microemulsion showed incompatibility and was excluded from further experiments. Coreflood runs that used 20-in. Bandera sandstine cores with permeabilities greater than 10 md showed that the improvement factor in effective gas permeability because of treatment with microemulsions was up to 2.5, depending on the type of microemulsion. Thermal stability tests were performed on microemulsions, and the results showed stability of the microemulsions at high temperatures up to 400°F.
A newly developed microemulsion (Nguyen 2013) that was formulated with a blend of anionic and nonionic surfactants, short-chain alcohol, oil, and water was tested and showed a significant reduction in the surface tension between water and nitrogen gas when compared with mutual-solvent and fluoropolymer-surfactant solutions. Among the tested chemicals, ME-V with a contact angle of 63.4° had the lowest capillary pressure, which makes this microemulsion the best treatment fluid among the four chemicals tested for gas-permeability enhancement and cleanup of the fluid in the near-wellbore region. The resulting capillary pressure for the fracture fluid treated with 0.25 wt% of this chemical in 2 wt% KCl is nearly six times lower than that of the untreated fluid with no microemulsion.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Ahmadi, M., Sharma, M. M., Pope, G. A. et al. 2011. Chemical Treatment To Mitigate Condensate and Water Blocking in Gas Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (1): 67–74. SPE-133591-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133591-PA.
Ahmed, T. and McKinney, P. D. 2005. Well Testing Analysis. In Advanced Reservoir Engineering, Chap. 1, 1–9. Houston: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Al-Anazi, H. A., Walker, J. G., Pope, G. A. et al. 2005. A Successful Methanol Treatment in a Gas/Condensate Reservoir: Field Application. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (1): 60–69. SPE-80901-PA. http://dx.doi/org/10.2118/80901-PA.
Bang, V., Pope G. A., Sharma, M. M. et al. 2010. A New Solution To Restore Productivity of Gas Wells With Condensate and Water
Blocks. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (2): 323–331. SPE-116711-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116711-PA.
Buckley, S. E. and Leverett, M. C. 1942. Mechanism of Fluid Displacement in Sands. Trans. AIME 146 (1): 107–116. SPE-942107-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/942107-G.
Donaldson, E. C. and Alam, W. 2008. Wettability. In Wettability, Chap. 1, 13. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company.
Du, L., Walker, J. G., Pope, G. A. et al. 2000. Use of Solvent To Improve the Productivity of Gas Condensate Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, USA, 1–4 October. SPE-62935-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62935-MS.
Franco, C., Zabala R., Botero, O. et al. 2013. Inhibited Gas Stimulation To Mitigate Condensate Banking and Maximize Recovery in Cupiagua Field. SPE Prod & Oper 28 (2): 154–167. SPE-151575-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151575-PA.
Froning, H. R. and Leach, R. O. 1967. Determination of Chemical Requirements and Applicability of Wettability Alteration Flooding. J Pet Technol 19 (6): 839–843. SPE-1563-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1563-PA.
Gradzielski, M. and Hoffman, H. 2000. Rheological Properties of Microemulsions. In Handbook of Microemulsion Science and Technology, eds. P. Kumar and K. L. Mittal, Chap. 11, 357–386. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Hamberlin, C. W., Thomas, D. C., and Trbovich, M. G. 1990. Combination of Selected Solvents and Mutual Solvents Successful in Removing Hydrocarbon Based Formation Damage. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 10–13 June. PETSOC-90-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90-58.
Kruss. 2012. Wilhelmy Plate Method. http://www.kruss.de/services/education-theory/glossary/wilhelmy-plate-method (accessed 15 July 2012).
Li, K. and Firoozabadi, A. 2000. Experimental Study of Wettability Alteration to Preferentially Gas-Wetting in Porous Media and Its Effects. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (2): 139–149. SPE-62515-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62515-PA.
Marokane, D., Logmo-Ngog, A. B., and Sarkar, R. 2002. Applicability of Timely Gas Injection in Gas Condensate Fields To Improve Well Productivity. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 13–17 April. SPE-75147-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75147-MS.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). 2012. NIST Chemistry WebBook. http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ (accessed 21 September 2012).
Nguyen, D. T. 2013. Microemulsion Flowback Aid Composition and Method of Using Same. US Patent No. US20130261033 A1.
Noh, M. and Firoozabadi, A. 2008. Wettability Alteration in Gas-Condensate Reservoirs To Mitigate Well Deliverability Loss by Water Blocking. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 676–685. SPE-98375-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98375-PA.
Penny, G. S., Soliman, M. Y., Conway, M.W. et al. 1983. Enhanced Load Water-Recovery Technique Improves Stimulation Results. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, California, USA, 5–8 October. SPE-12149-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12149-MS.
Penny, G., Pursley, J. T., and Holcomb, D. 2005. The Application of Microemulsion Additives in Drilling and Stimulation Results in Enhanced Gas Production. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 17–19 April. SPE-94274-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94274-MS.
Pons, R., Carrera, I., Caelles, J. et al. 2003. Formation and properties of miniemulsions formed by microemulsions dilution. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 106 (1–3): 129–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8686(03)00108-8.
Pursley, J. T., Penny, G., and Holcomb, D. 2004. Microemulsion Additives Enable Optimized Formation Damage Repair and Prevention. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette. Louisiana, USA, 18–20 February. SPE-86556-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86556-MS.
Rostami, A. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2014. Microemulsion vs. Surfactant Assisted Gas Recovery in Low Permeability Formations with Water Blockage. Presented at the SPE Western North America and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, Denver, 17–18 April. SPE-169582-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169582-MS.
Santanna, V. C., de Casto Dantas, T. N., and Neto, A. A. D. 2012. The Use of Microemulsion Systems in Oil Industry. In Microemulsions: An Introduction to Properties and Applications, ed. R. Najjar, Chap. 8, 161–174, InTech. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/2300.
Wagner, O. R. and Leach, R. O. 1959. Improving Oil Displacement Efficiency by Wettability Adjustment. Trans. AIME 216 (1): 65–72. SPE-1101-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1101-G.
Walker, J. G. 2000. Laboratory Evaluation of Alcohols and Surfactants to Increase Production from Gas-Condensate Reservoirs. MS thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (December 2000).
Witthayapanyanon, A., Acosta, E. J., Harwell, J. H. et al. 2006. Formulation of Ultralow Interfacial Tension Systems Using Extended Surfactants. J. Surfact. Deterg. 9 (4): 331–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11743-006-5011-2.
Zelenev, A. S., Champagne, L. M., and Hamilton, M. 2011. Investigation of Interactions of Diluted Microemulsions with Shale Rock and Sand by Adsorption and Wettability Measuremenst. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physiochemical and Engineering Aspects 391 (1–3): 201–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2011.07.007.