The Role of Individual and Combined Ions in Waterflooding Carbonate Reservoirs: Electrokinetic Study
- Mohammed B. Alotaibi (Saudi Aramco) | Ali Yousef (Saudi Aramco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 77 - 86
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- carbonates, ionic strength, Oil-in-water emulsion, electrokinetics
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 507 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Adjusting the injection-water chemistry during waterflooding for both carbonate and clastic reservoirs shows a significant effect on oil recovery. In carbonates, however, the role of ions plays a key role in rock/fluid interaction, and eventually affects the rock wettability. Research studies for carbonate-rock systems have been continuously conducted to identify the reaction mechanisms that modify the rock wettability toward water-wet. Most of these studies are conducted at macroscopic scales by use of conventional methods such as coreflooding, contact-angle, and imbibition/drainage procedures. Potential mechanisms for rock-wettability alteration were proposed including sulfate (SO4) adsorption, mineral dissolution, ionic exchange, and improving fluid diffusion among different pore systems. Further research studies have noted that certain ions have a significant role in the proposed mechanisms. Moreover, the main interactions are expected to take place at rock/fluid and/or fluid/fluid interfaces.
In this paper, more attention is given to indirect measurements of carbonate- and crude-oil-surface charges at different ionic composition and temperatures by use of unique preparation procedures and advanced techniques. Individual and combined dissolved cations and anions were studied at fixed salinity. An ultrasonic homogenizer bath was used to create oil-in-water emulsions and carbonate suspensions in different brines at high temperatures. To determine the interactions between immiscible fluids with carbonates, oil-in-water emulsions were prepared in the presence of carbonate particles. To mimic the reservoir condition, the aging effect on the chemical interactions of emulsions and carbonate suspensions was investigated.
The findings in this study bring new insights on the effect of different ions on crude-oil components and carbonate-rock interactions at fixed salinity. Individual ions including cations and anions altered carbonate-surface charges and interacted differently at interfaces, although all water recipes have the same salinity. Individual sodium (Na) salts, in particular, significantly influenced the surface potential at the calcite/water interfaces. The hard ions as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), on the other hand, shifted the ζ-potential of calcites toward the positive side. These divalent ions can either adsorb directly on the negative sites or penetrate the adsorbed hydrolysis layer of water on the calcite surface. The electrical properties of calcites are also affected by the ionic content and the cation/anion ratio, as in SmartWater (a mixture of dissolved salt species such as cations and anions) (Yousef et al. 2012) and key ion solutions. In addition, the dissolved divalent cations can play a role in the interactions at the Stern-layer boundary and eventually they can affect the surface charges at oil/water interfaces. In view of the ζ-potential results, only SmartWater, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) solutions were able to create electrical repulsions between oil/water and calcite/water interfaces. As a result, wettability of the rock will be altered to water-wet, thus enhancing oil recovery.
|File Size||920 KB||Number of Pages||10|
Al Harrasi, A., Al-maamari, R. S. and Masalmeh, S. K. 2012. Laboratory Investigation of Low Salinity Waterflooding for Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, 11–14 November. SPE-161468-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/161468-MS.
Alotaibi, M. B., Nasr-El-Din, H. A. and Fletcher, J. J. 2011. Electrokinetics of Limestone and Dolomite Rock Particles. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 594–603. SPE-148701-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148701-PA.
Alroudhan, A. R., Vinogradov, J. and Jackson, M. D. 2015. Zeta Potential in Carbonates at Reservoir Conditions – Application to IOR. Oral presentation given at IOR 25 – 18th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Dresden, Germany, 14–16 April.
Birdi, K. S. 2002. Handbook of Surface and Colloid Chemistry. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Brecevic, L. and Kralj, D. 2007. On Calcium Carbonates: From Fundamental Research to Application. Croat. Chem. Acta 80 (3–4): 467–484.
Buckley, J. S., Takamura, K. and Morrow, N. R. 1989. Influence of Electrical Surface Charges on the Wetting Properties of Crude Oils. SPE Res Eng 4 (3): 332–340. SPE-16964-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16964-PA.
Chen, L., Zhang, G., Wang, L. et al. 2014. Zeta Potential of Limestone in a Large Range of Salinity. Colloid. Surface. A 450 (20 May): 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2014.03.006.
Das, K. K. 2002. Electrokinetics of Mineral Particles. In Interfacial Electrokinetics and Electrophoresis, ed. A. V. Delgado, Chap. 28, 815–816. New York City: Marcel Dekker.
Gomari, K. A. R., Karoussi, O. and Hamouda, A. A. 2006. Mechanistic Study of Interaction between Water and Carbonate Rocks for Enhancing Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 12–15 June. SPE-99628-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99628-MS.
Hirasaki, G. and Zhang, D. L. 2004. Surface Chemistry of Oil Recovery From Fractured, Oil-Wet, Carbonate Formations. SPE J. 9 (2): 151–162. SPE-88365-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88365-PA.
Huang, Y. C., Fowkes, F. M., Lloyd, T. B. et al. 1991. Adsorption of Calcium Ions from Calcium Chloride Solutions onto Calcium Carbonate Particles. Langmuir 7 (8): 1742–1748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la00056a028.
Kwak, H. T., Yousef, A. A. and Al-Saleh, S. 2014. New Insights on the Role of Multivalent Ions in Water-Carbonate Rock Interactions. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169112-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169112-MS.
Madsen, L. 2006. Calcite: Surface Charge. In Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science, ed. A. T. Hubbard, 1084–1096. New York City: Taylor and Francis.
Mahani, H., Keya, A. L., Berg, S. et al. 2015. Insights into the Mechanism of Wettability Alteration by Low-Salinity Flooding (LSF) in Carbonates. Energ. Fuel. 29 (3): 1352–1367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef5023847.
Mohanty, K. K. and Chandrasekhar, S. 2013. Wettability Alteration with Brine Composition in High Temperature Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166280-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166280-MS.
Nasralla, R. A. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2014. Double-Layer Expansion: Is It a Primary Mechanism of Improved Oil Recovery by Low-Salinity Waterflooding? SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (1): 49–59. SPE-154334-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154334-PA.
Nyström, R., Lindén, M. and Rosenholm, J. B. 2001. The Influence of Na2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, and La3+ on the z Potential and the Yield Stress of Calcite Dispersions. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 242 (1): 259–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2001.7766.
Pierre, A., Lamarche, J. M., Foissy, A. et al. 1990. Calcium as Potential Determining Ion in Aqueous Calcite Suspensions. J. Disper. Sci. Technol. 11 (6): 611–635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01932699008943286.
Plank, J. and Bassioni, G. 2007. Adsorption of Carboxylate Anions on a CaCO3 Surface. Z. Naturforsch. 62 (10): 1277–1284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/znb-2007-1008.
Pokrovsky, O. S. and Schott, J. 2002. Surface Chemistry and Dissolution Kinetics of Divalent Metal Carbonates. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 (2):426–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es010925u.
Rodríguez, K. and Araujo, M. 2006. Temperature and Pressure Effects on Zeta Potential Values of Reservoir Minerals. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 300 (2): 788–794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.04.030.
Schramm, L. L. 2006. Emulsions, Foams, and Suspensions: Fundamentals and Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.
Sepehrnoori, K., Pope, G. and Al-shalabi, E. W. 2014. Geochemical Interpretation of Low Salinity Water Injection in Carbonate Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169101-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169101-MS.
Strand, S. and Austad, T. 2008. Effect of Temperature on Enhanced Oil Recovery from Mixed-wet Chalk Cores by Spontaneous Imbibition and Forced Displacement using Seawater. Energ. Fuel. 22 (5): 3222–3225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef800244v.
Toulhoat, H. and Lecourtier, J. ed. 1991. Physical Chemistry of Colloids and Interfaces in Oil Production. Paris: Éditions Technip.
Vdovic, N. 2001. Electrokinetic Behaviour of Calcite–the Relationship with Other Calcite Properties. Chem. Geol. 177 (3–4): 241–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(00)00397-1.
Wolthers, M., Charlet, L. and Van Cappellen, P. 2008. The Surface Chemistry of Divalent Metal Carbonate Minerals; a Critical Assessment of Surface Charge and Potential Data Using the Charge Distribution Multi-site Ion Complexation Model. Am. J. Sci. 308 (8): 905–941. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/08.2008.02.
Yousef, A. A., Al-Saleh, S. H., Al-Kaabi, A. O. et al. 2010. Laboratory Investigation of Novel Oil Recovery Method for Carbonate Reservoir. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources & International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-137634-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137634-MS.
Yousef, A. A., Liu, J. S., Blanchard, G. W. et al. 2012. SmartWater Flooding: Industry’s First Field Test in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-169052-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169052-MS.
Zasoski, R. J. 2008. Zeta Potential. In Encyclopedia of Soil Science, ed. W. Chesworth, 841–845. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Zhang, P. and Austad T. 2006. Wettability and Oil Recovery from Carbonates: Effects of Temperature and Potential Determining Ions. Colloid. Surface. A 279 (1–3): 179–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.01.009.