Wettability Alteration and Spontaneous Imbibition in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs by Surfactant Additives
- Johannes O. Alvarez (Texas A&M University) | David S. Schechter (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 107 - 117
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Surfactants, Wettability Alteration, Spontaneous Imbibition, Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs, Computed Tomography
- 27 in the last 30 days
- 810 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Wettability alteration in unconventional liquid reservoirs (ULRs) can improve fracture-treatment performance and consequently oil recovery by changing capillary forces when shifting intermediate and oil-wet reservoirs to water-wet. Wettability can be modified while fracturing the formation by adding surfactants, in proper concentrations, to completion fluids favoring the process of imbibition and increasing current ULR recovery factors of less than 10% of the original oil in place (OOIP). This study combines the effect of wettability and interfacial-tension (IFT) alteration by surfactants and the corresponding effect on spontaneous imbibition in ULRs from the Permian Basin through a correlated experimental work flow, which includes conducting contact-angle (CA) and ζ-potential experiments, IFT measurements, and spontaneous-imbibition experiments combined with computed-tomography (CT) methods to evaluate and compare the efficiency of different surfactants in altering wettability and recovering hydrocarbons from siliceous core at reservoir temperature.
Wettability-experiment results showed that all surfactants change ULR core-wetting affinity from oil- and intermediate-wet to water-wet at commonly field-used concentrations. However, the anionic surfactant showed better results in changing CAs. In addition, the anionic surfactant better reduced the IFT than nonionic and mixed surfactants, and surfactants performed better than fracturing fluid without surfactant additives. Finally, spontaneous-imbibition results showed that the anionic surfactant was better for recovering oil from shale core, which agrees qualitatively with the previous results where the anionic surfactant showed the lowest CAs and IFT. However, both anionic and nonionic surfactants were better in displacing liquid hydrocarbons and had higher penetration magnitudes obtained by CT methods compared with fracturing water without surfactant. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the addition of proper surfactants to fracturing fluids has the potential of improving oil recovery by wettability and IFT alteration, with the anionic surfactant showing lower CAs and IFT, better imbibition, and higher oil recovery than nonionic and mixed surfactants in these siliceous ULRs from the Permian Basin.
|File Size||994 KB||Number of Pages||11|
Adibhatla, B. and Mohanty, K. K. 2008. Oil Recovery from Fractured Carbonates by Surfactant-Aided Gravity Drainage: Laboratory Experiments and Mechanistic Simulations. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (1): 119–130. SPE-99773-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99773-PA.
Alharthy, N., Teklu, T., Kazemi, H. et al. 2015. Enhanced Oil Recovery in Liquid-Rich Shale Reservoirs: Laboratory to Field. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175034-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/175034-MS.
Alvarez, J. O., Neog, A., Jais, A. et al. 2014. Impact of Surfactants for Wettability Alteration in Stimulation Fluids and the Potential for Surfactant EOR in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 1–3 April. SPE-169001-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169001-MS.
Alvarez, J. O. and Schechter, D.S. 2016. Altering Wettability in Bakken Shale by Surfactant Additives and Potential of Improving Oil Recovery During Injection of Completion Fluids.. Paper presented at SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, 11–13 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma. SPE-179688-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/179688-MS.
Anderson, W. G. 1986a. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 1: Rock/Oil/Brine Interactions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J Pet Technol 38 (10): 1125–1144. SPE-13932-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1986b. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 2: Wettability Measurement. J Pet Technol 38 (11): 1246–1262. SPE-13933-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13933-PA.
Anderson, W. G. 1987. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 4: Effects of Wettability on Capillary Pressure. J Pet Technol 39 (10): 1283–1300. SPE-15271-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15271-PA.
Austad, T. and Milter, J. 1997. Spontaneous Imbibition of Water into Low Permeable Chalk at Different Wettabilities Using Surfactants. Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, 18–21 February. SPE-37236-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37236-MS.
Austad, T., Matre, B., Milter, J. et al. 1998. Chemical Flooding of Oil Reservoirs 8. Spontaneous Oil Expulsion from Oil- and Water-Wet Low Permeable Chalk Material by Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions. Colloid. Surface. A 137 (1–3): 117–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(97)00378-6.
Babadagli, T., Al-Bemani, A., and Boukadi, F. 1999. Analysis of Capillary Imbibition Recovery Considering the Simultaneous Effects of Gravity, Low IFT, and Boundary Conditions. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 25–26 October. SPE-57321-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57321-MS.
Buckley, J. S., Liu, Y. and Monsterleet, S. 1998. Mechanisms of Wetting Alteration by Crude Oils. SPE J. 3 (1): 54–61. SPE-37230-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37230-PA.
Chen, H. L., Lucas, L. R., Nogaret, L. A. D. et al. 2001. Laboratory Monitoring of Surfactant Imbibition with Computerized Tomography. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (1): 16–25. SPE-69197-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/69197-PA.
Craig, F. F. Jr. 1971. Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding, Vol. 3. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
DataPhysics Instruments GmbH. 2016. (http://www.dataphysics.de/2/start/products/software-modules/).
Doman, L. 2015. US Remained World’s Largest Producer of Petroleum and Natural Gas Hydrocarbons in 2014. US Energy Information Administration, April 2015.
Downs, H. H. and Hoover, P. D. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Wettability Alteration. In Oil-Field Chemistry: Enhanced Recovery and Production Stimulation, ed. J. K. Borchardt and T. F. Yen, Chap. 3, 577–595. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Gupta, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2011. Wettability Alteration Mechanism for Oil Recovery from Fractured Carbonate Rocks. Transport Porous Med. 87 (2): 635–652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9706-5.
Hirasaki, G. J. 1991. Wettability: Fundamentals and Surface Forces. SPE Form Eval 6 (2): 217–226. SPE-17367-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17367-PA.
Hirasaki, G. and Zhang, D. L. 2004. Surface Chemistry of Oil Recovery from Fractured, Oil-Wet, Carbonate Formations. SPE J. 9 (2): 151–162. SPE-88365-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88365-PA.
Kao, R. L., Wasan, D. T., Nikolov, A. D. et al. 1988. Mechanisms of Oil Removal from a Solid Surface in the Presence of Anionic Micellar Solutions. Colloid. Surface. 34 (4): 389–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-6622(88)80163-X.
Kathel, P. and Mohanty, K. K. 2013. EOR in Tight Oil Reservoirs through Wettability Alteration. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166281-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166281-MS.
Kumar, K., Dao, E. K. and Mohanty, K. K. 2008. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Wettability Alteration by Surfactants. SPE J. 13 (2): 137–145. SPE-93009-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93009-PA.
Leslie, Z. D., Liu, S., Puerto, M. et al. 2006. Wettability Alteration and Spontaneous Imbibition in Oil-Wet Carbonate Formations. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 52 (1–4): 213–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.009.
Morsy, S. and Sheng, J. J. 2014. Surfactant Preflood to Improve Waterflooding Performance in Shale Formations. Presented at the SPE Western North American and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, Denver, 17–18 April. SPE-169519-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169519-MS.
Nguyen, D., Wang, D., Oladapo, A. et al. 2014. Evaluation of Surfactants for Oil Recovery Potential in Shale Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169085-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169085-MS.
Odusina, E. O., Sondergeld, C. H. and Rai, C. S. 2011. NMR Study of Shale Wettability. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 15–17 November. SPE-147371-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147371-MS.
Salehi, M., Johnson, S. J. and Liang, J.-T. 2008. Mechanistic Study of Wettability Alteration Using Surfactants with Applications in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Langmuir 24 (24): 14099–14107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la802464u.
Schneider, C. A., Rasband, W. S. and Eliceiri, K. W. 2012. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature Methods 9 (7): 671–675. PMID 22930834.
Shuler, P. J., Tang, H., Lu, Z. et al. 2011. Chemical Process for Improved Oil Recovery from Bakken Shale. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 15–17 November. SPE-147531-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147531-MS.
Standnes, D. C. and Austad, T. 2000. Wettability Alteration in Chalk: 2. Mechanism for Wettability Alteration from Oil-Wet to Water-Wet Using Surfactants. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 28 (3): 123–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00084-X.
Standnes, D. C. 2001. Enhanced Oil Recovery from Oil-Wet Carbonate Rock by Spntaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions. PhD dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Wang, D., Butler, R., Zhang, J. et al. 2012. Wettability Survey in Bakken Shale with Surfactant-Formulation Imbibition. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (6): 695–705. SPE-153853-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153853-PA.
Wang, D., Zhang, J., Butler, R. et al. 2015. Scaling Laboratory Data Surfactant Imbibition Rates to the Field in Fractured Shale Formations. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July. SPE-178489-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/178489-MS.
Zhang, P. and Austad, T. 2005. Waterflooding in Chalk: Relationship Between Oil Recovery, New Wettability Index, Brine Composition and Cationic Wettability Modifier. Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 1316 June. SPE-94209-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94209-MS.