Fractured-Reservoir Modeling and Interpretation
- Fikri Kuchuk (Schlumberger) | Denis Biryukov (Schlumberger) | Tony Fitzpatrick (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 983 - 1,004
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Naturally fractured reservoirs , dual-porosity type models , Interpretation of fractured reservoirs , Pressure transiet behavior
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 992 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Fractures are common features of many well-known reservoirs. Naturally fractured reservoirs (NFRs) consist of fractures in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (matrix). Faults in many naturally fractured carbonate reservoirs often have high-permeability zones and are connected to numerous fractures with varying conductivities. In many NFRs, faults and fractures frequently have discrete distributions rather than connected-fracture networks. Because faulting often creates fractures, faults and fractures should be modeled together. Accurately modeling NFR pressure-transient behavior is important in hydrogeology, the earth sciences, and petroleum engineering, including groundwater contamination to shale gas and oil reservoirs. For more than 50 years, conventional dual-porosity-type models, which do not include any fractures, have been used for modeling fluid flow in NFRs and aquifers. They have been continuously modified to add unphysical matrix-block properties such as matrix skin factor.
In general, fractured reservoirs are heterogeneous at different length scales. It is clear that even with millions of gridblocks, numerical models may bot be capable of accurately simulating the pressure-transient behavior of continuously and discretely NFRs containing variable-conductivity fractures. The conventional dual-porosity-type models are obviously an oversimplification; their serious limitations for interpreting well-test data from NFRs are discussed in detail. These models do not include wellbore-intersecting fractures, even though they dominate the pressure behavior of NFRs for a considerable length of testing time. Fracture conductivities of unity to infinity dominate transient behavior of both continuously and discretely fractured reservoirs, but again, dial-porosity models do not contain any fractures. Our fractured-reservoir model is capable of treating thousands of fractures that are periodically or arbitrarily distributed with finite and/or infinite conductivities, different lengths, densities, and orientations.
Appropriate inner-boundary conditions are used to account for wellbore-intersecting fractures and direct wellbore contributions to production. Wellbore-storage and skin effects in bounded and unbounded systems are included in the model. Three types of damaged-skin factors that may exist in wellbore-intersecting fracture(s) are specified. With this highly accurate model, the pressure-transient behavior of conventional dual-porosity-type models are investigated, and their limitations and range of applicability are identified. The behavior of the triple-porosity models is also investigated. It is very unlikely that triple-porosity behavior is caused by the local variability of matrix properties at the microscopic level. Rather, it is caused by the spatial variability of conductivity, length, density, and orientation of the fracture distributions. Finally, we have presented an interpretation of a field-buildup-test example from an NFR by use of both conventional dual-porosity models and our fractured-reservoir model.
A substantial part of this paper is a review and discussion of the earlier work on NFRs, including the authors' work.
|File Size||18 MB||Number of Pages||22|
Aarseth, E. S., Bourgine, B., Castaing, C., et al. 1997. Interim Guide to Fracture Interpretation and Flow Modeling in Fractured Reservoirs. Technical Report No. EUR 17116 EN, European Commission.
Abdassah, D. and Ershaghi, I. 1986. Triple-Porosity Systems for Representing Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 1 (2): 113–127. SPE-13409-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13409-PA.
Akbar, M., Vissapragada, B., Alghamdi, A. H., et al. 2001. A snapshot of Carbonate Reservoir Evaluation. Oilfield Rev. 12 (4): 20–41.
Ayestaran, L., Nurmi, R., Shehab, G., et al. 1989. Well Test Design and Final Interpretation Improved by Integrated Well Testing and Geological Efforts. Presented at the Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 11–14 March. SPE-17945-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17945-MS.
Baker, R. O. and Kuppe, F. 2000. Reservoir Characterization for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1–4, October. SPE-63286-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/63286-MS.
Barenblatt, G. I., Zeltov, Y. P. and Kochina, I. 1960. Basic Concepts in the Theory of Seepage of Homogeneous Liquids in Fissured Rocks. J. Appl. Math. Mech. 24 (5): 1286–1303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-8928(60)90107-6.
Barua, J., Kucuk, F. and Gomez-Angulo, J. 1985. Application of Computers in the Analysis of Well Tests From Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 27-29 March. SPE-13662-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13662-MS.
Bear, J. 1993. Modeling Flow and Contaminant Transport in Fractured Rocks. In Flow and Contaminant Transport in Fractured Rock, chapter, ed. J. Bear, C. F. Tsang, and G. de Marsily, 1–37. San Diego, California: Academic Press, Inc.
Belani, A. and Jalali, Y. 1988. Estimation of Matrix Block Size Distribution in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 2–5 October. SPE-18171-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18171-MS.
Belfield, W. and Sovich, J. 1994. Fracture Statistics From Horizontal Wellbores. Presented at the SPE/CIM/CANMET International Conference on Recent Advances in Horizontal Well Applications, Calgary, 20–23 March. PETSOC-HWC-94-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/HWC-94-37.
Berkowitz, B. 2002. Characterizing Flow and Transport in Fractured Geological Media: A Review. Adv. Water Resour. 25 (8–12): 861–884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00042-8.
Biryukov, D. and Kuchuk, F. 2012. Transient Pressure Behavior of Reservoirs with Discrete Conductive Faults and Fractures. Transport Porous Med. 95 (1): 239–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-012-0041-x.
Bogdanov, I., Mourzenko, V., Thovert, J.-F., et al. 2003. Pressure Drawdown Well Tests in Fractured Porous Media. Water Resour. Res. 39 (1):1021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000WR000080.
Booth, R., Morton, K., Onur, M., et al. 2010. Grid-Based Inversion of Pressure Transient Test Data. Oral presentation given at the European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery XII, Oxford, UK, 6-9 September.
Booth, R., Morton, K., Onur, M., et al. 2012. Grid-Based Inversion of Pressure Transient Test Data with Stochastic Gradient Techniques. Int. J. Uncertain. Qual. 2 (4): 395–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/Int.J.UncertaintyQuantification.2012003480.
Bourdet, D. 1985. Pressure Behavior of Layered Reservoirs With Crossflow. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 27–29 March. SPE-13628-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13628-MS.
Bourdet, D., Whittle, T., Douglas, A., et al. 1983. A New Set of Type Curves Simplifies Well Test Analysis. World Oil 6: 95–106.
Braester, C. 2009. Groundwater Flow Through Fractured Rocks. In Groundwater, Vol. II, ed. L. Silveira and E. J. Usunoff, 22–42. Oxford, UK: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems Publishers Co.
Carslaw, H. C. and Jaeger, J. C. 1959. Conduction of Heat in Solids. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Casabianca, D., Jolly, R. J. H. and Pollard, R. 2007. The Machar Oil Field: Waterflooding a Fractured Chalk Reservoir. Geol. Soc. London 270 (1): 171–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2007.270.01.12.
Casciano, C., Ruvo, L., Volpi, B., et al. 2004. Well Test Simulation Through Discrete Fracture Network Modelling in a Fractured Carbonate Reservoir. Petrol. Geosci. 10 (4): 331–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/1354-079303-590.
Chatas, A. 1966. Unsteady Spherical Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs. SPE J. 6 (2): 102–114. SPE-1305-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1305-PA.
Cinco-Ley, H. and Samaniego-V., F. 1981. Transient Pressure Analysis: Finite Conductivity Fracture Case Versus Damaged Fracture Case. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 4–7 October. SPE-10179-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10179-MS.
Cinco-Ley, H., Samaniego-V, F. and Kuchuk, F. 1985. The Pressure Transient Behavior for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs With Multiple Block Size. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, 22–25 September. SPE-14168-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14168-MS.
Committee on Fracture Characterization and Fluid Flow 1996. Rock Fractures and Fluid Flow:Contemporary Understanding and Applications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Daniel, E. 1954. Fractured Reservoirs of Middle East. AAPG Bull. 38 (5): 774–815.
Davidson, D. and Snowdon, D. 1978. Beaver River Middle Devonian Carbonate: Performance Review of a High-Relief, Fractured Gas Reservoir With Water Influx. J Pet Technol 30 (12): 1672–1678. SPE-6830-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6830-PA.
de Swaan O., A. 1976. Analytic Solutions for Determining Naturally Fractured Reservoir Properties by Well Testing. SPE J. 16 (3): 117–122. SPE-5346-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5346-PA.
Doonechaly, N. G., Rahman, S. and Cinar, Y. 2013. A New Finite-Element Numerical Model for Analyzing Transient Pressure Response of Naturally-Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166477-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166477-MS.
Duhamel, J. 1833. Memoire Sur La Methode Generale Relative Au Mouvement De La Chaleur Dans Les Corps Solides Polonge Dans Les Milieux Dont La Temprature Varie Avec Le Temps. J. de Ec. Polyt. 14: 20–77.
Freudenreich, Y., Angerer, E., del Monte, A. A., et al. 2006. Characterizing Fracture Networks: An Effective Approach Using Seismic Anisotropy Attributes. First Break 24 (6): 67–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.3997/1365-2397.2006016.
Gringarten, A. 1984. Interpretation of Tests in Fissured and Multilayered Reservoirs With Double-Porosity Behavior: Theory and Practice. J Pet Technol 36 (4): 549–564. SPE-10044-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10044-PA.
Hahn, D. W. and Ozisik, M. N. 2012. Heat Conduction, third edition. New York City: Wiley.
Houze, O. P., Horne, R. N. and Ramey, H. J. 1988. Pressure-Transient Response of an Infinite-Conductivity Vertical Fracture in a Reservoir with Double-Porosity Behavior. SPE Form Eval 3 (3): 510–518. SPE-12778-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12778-PA.
Izadi, M. and Yildiz, T. 2009. Transient Flow in Discretely Fractured Porous Media. SPE J. 14 (2): 362–373. SPE-108190-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/108190-PA.
Jaeger, J. 1955. Conduction of Heat in a Solid in Contact with a Thin Layer of a Good Conductor. Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math 8 (1): 101–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmam/8.1.101.
Johns, R. and Jalali, Y. 1991. Comparison of Pressure-Transient Response in Intensely and Sparsely Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 6 (4): 513–518. SPE-18800-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18800-PA.
Kazemi, H. 1969. Pressure Transient Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs with Uniform Fracture Distribution. SPE J. 9 (4): 451–462. SPE-2156-A. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2156-A.
Kikani, J. and Walkup, G. W. 1991. Analysis of Pressure-Transient Tests for Composite Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 6 (2): 176–182. SPE-19786-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19786-PA.
Kuchuk, F. 1994. Pressure Behavior of MDT Packer Module and DST in Crossflow-Multilayer Reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 11 (2): 123–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(94)90034-5.
Kuchuk, F. and Biryukov, D. 2012. Transient Pressure Test Interpretation from Continuously and Discretely Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-158096-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/158096-MS.
Kuchuk, F. and Biryukov, D. 2013. Pressure Transient Tests and Flow Regimes in Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166296-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166296-MS.
Kuchuk, F. and Biryukov, D. 2014. Pressure-Transient Behavior of Continuously and Discretely Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (1): 82–97. SPE-158096-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/158096-PA.
Kuchuk, F. and Biryukov, D. 2015. Pressure-Transient Tests and Flow Regimes in Fractured Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 18 (1): 1–18. SPE-166296-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166296-PA.
Kuchuk, F., Biryukov, D. and Fitzpatrick, T. 2014. Rate Transient and Decline Curve Analyses for Continuously (Dual-Porosity) and Discretely Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170698-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170698-MS.
Kuchuk, F., Goode, P. A., Wilkinson, D. J., et al. 1991. Pressure-Transient Behavior of Horizontal Wells With and Without Gas Cap or Aquifer. SPE Form Eval 6 (1): 86–94. SPE-17413-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17413-PA.
Kuchuk, F., Onur, M. and Hollaender, F. 2010. Pressure Transient Formation and Well Testing: Convolution, Deconvolution and Nonlinear Estimation. New York City: Elsevier.
Kuchuk, F. J. and Wilkinson, D. 1991. Transient Pressure Behavior of Commingled Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 6 (1): 111–120. SPE-18125-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18125-PA.
Lee, W., Rollins, J. and Spivey, J. 2003. Pressure Transient Testing, Vol. 9. Richardson, Texas: Textbook Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Liu, C. Q. 1981. Exact Solution for the Compressible Flow Equations through a Medium with Triple-Porosity. Appl. Math. Mech. 2 (4): 457–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01875921.
Moench, A. 1984. Double-Porosity Models for a Fissured Groundwater Reservoir With Fracture Skin. Water Resour. Res. 20 (7): 831–846. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR020i007p00831.
Morton, K., Booth, R., Chugunov, N., et al. 2013. Global Sensitivity Analysis for Natural Fracture Geological Modeling Parameters from Pressure Transient Tests. Presented at the EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition incorporating SPE Europec, London, 10–13 June. SPE-164894-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164894-MS.
Morton, K., de Brito Nogueira, P., Booth, R., et al. 2012. Integrated Interpretation for Pressure Transient Tests in Discretely Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–7 June. SPE-154531-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154531-MS.
Muskat, M. 1937. The Flow of Homogeneous Fluids Through Porous Media. Ann Arbor, Michigan: J. W. Edwards, Inc.
Nelson, R. A. 1985. Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Houston: Gulf Publishing.
Nurmi, R., Kuchuk, F., Cassell, B., et al. 1995. Horizontal Highlights. Middle East Well Eval. Rev. 16: 6–25.
Odling, N. E. 1997. Scaling and Connectivity of Joint Systems in Sandstone from Western Norway. J. Struct. Geol. 19 (10): 1257–1271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(97)00041-2.
Ozkan, E. and Raghavan, R. 1991. New Solutions for Well-Test-Analysis Problems: Part 1-Analytical Considerations. SPE Form Eval 6 (3): 359–368. SPE-18615-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18615-PA.
Pollard, D. D. and Aydin, A. 1988. Progress in Understanding Jointing Over the Past Century. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 100 (8): 1181–1204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1181:PIUJOT>2.3.CO;2.
Raghavan, R. 1993. Well Test Analysis. Boston, Massachusetts: Prentice Hall.
Ramakrishnan, T. S., Ramamoorthy, R., Fordham, E., et al. 2001. A Model-Based Interpretation Methodology for Evaluating Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October. SPE-71704-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71704-MS.
Riley, M., Brigham, W. and Horne, R. 2007. Analytic Solutions for Elliptical Finite-Conductivity Fractures. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 6–9 October. SPE-22656-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22656-MS.
Rogers, S., Enachescu, C., Trice, R., et al. 2007. Integrating Discrete Fracture Network Models and Pressure Transient Data for Testing Conceptual Fracture Models of the Valhall Chalk Reservoir, Norwegian North Sea. Geol. Soc. London 270 (1): 193–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2007.270.01.13.
Sedov, L. I. 1954. Metody Podopiya i Razmernostei v Mechanike. GITTL.
Serra, K., Reynolds, A. and Raghavan, R. 1983. New Pressure Transient Analysis Methods for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 35 (12): 2271–2283. SPE-10780-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10780-PA.
Soliman, M. 2009. Transient Well Testing. In Well-Test Analysis of Hydraulically Fractured Wells, ed. M. Kamal, Chap. 11, 281–331. Richardson, Texas: Monograph Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Souche, L. and Rotsch, M. 2007. An End-to End-Approach to Naturally Fractured Reservoir Modeling: Workflow and Implementation. Proc., EAGE/SEG Research Workshop on Fractured Reservoirs-Integrating Geosciences for Fractured Reservoirs, Perugia, Italy, 3–6 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.20146718.
Spivey, J. P. and Lee, W. J. 2000. Pressure Transient Response for a Naturally Fractured Reservoir With a Distribution of Block Sizes. Presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Regional/Low-Permeability Reservoirs Symposium and Exhibition, Denver, 12–15 March. SPE-60294-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/60294-MS.
Stewart, G. and Asharsobbi, F. 1988. Well Test Intepretation for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 2–5 October. SPE-18173-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18173-MS.
Van Everdingen, A. and Hurst, W. 1949. The Application of the Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 1 (12): 305–324. SPE-949305-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/949305-G.
van Golf-Racht, T. D. 1982. Fundamentals of Fractured Reservoir Engineering. New York City: Elsevier.
Warren, J. E. and Root, P. J. 1963. The Behavior of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE J. 3 (3): 245–255. SPE-426-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/426-PA.
Wei, L., Hadwin, J., Chaput, E., et al. 1998. Discriminating Fracture Patterns in Fractured Reservoirs by Pressure Transient Tests. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 27–30 September. SPE-49233-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/49233-MS.
Whitaker, S. 1986. Flow in Porous Media I: A Theoretical Derivation of Darcy’s Law. Transport Porous Med. 1 (1): 3–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01036523.
Wong, D., Harrington, A. and Cinco-Ley, H. 1986. Application of the Pressure Derivative Function in the Pressure Transient Testing of Fractured Wells. SPE Form Eval 1 (5): 470–480. SPE-13056-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13056-PA.