Linear vs. Radial Boundary-Dominated Flow: Implications for Gas-Well-Decline Analysis
- Pichit Vardcharragosad (Pennsylvania State University) | Luis F. Ayala (Pennsylvania State University) | Miao Zhang (Pennsylvania State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,053 - 1,066
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- linear flow, boundary dominated
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 577 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Linear flow is a fundamental reservoir-flow geometry typically associated with production from unconventional resources stimulated by means of hydraulic fracturing. Recently, linear flow has been intensively studied following the fast pace of development of unconventional resources. Previous studies have mainly focused on early transient behavior and behavior of composite linear-flow systems. In this work, a density-based analysis method is extended to study decline behavior of the linear-flow system in boundary-dominated flow (BDF). In this study, we first discuss traditional approaches used to model linear flow in gas reservoirs. Second, we show the applicability of the density-based method for gas linear flow both analytically and numerically. Next, late-time solutions are discussed, and the analytical forecasting solution that best describes the BDF behavior is selected for long-term decline-behavior studies. Previously reported results on radial flow as well as early transient-flow effect are also incorporated to provide a more complete understanding of decline behavior and the impact of flow geometry. We show that boundary-dominated responses in linear-flow scenarios fully develop at much later stages of reservoir depletion compared with radial-flow scenarios. As a result, and in marked contrast with radial flow, purely hyperbolic decline behavior may be completely lost in linear-flow scenarios during boundary-dominated conditions. It is demonstrated that most of the recoverable hydrocarbons are produced during the early transient period for linear-flow conditions, whereas most of them are recoverable during the BDF period for radial flow. These results suggest that the availability of accurate early transient models is much more critical for the formulation of linear-flow-decline models than had been traditionally necessary for radial-flow-decline models.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Abou-Kassem, J. H., Mattar, L. and Dranchuk, P. M. 1990. Computer Calculations Of Compressibility Of Natural Gas. J Can Pet Technol 29 (5): 105–108. PETSOC-90-05-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90-05-10.
Abramowitz, M. and Stegun I. 1964. Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. Washington D.C.: US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards.
Agrawal, R. G. 1979. "Real Gas Pseudo-Time" - A New Function For Pressure Buildup Analysis Of MHF Gas Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, 23–26 September. SPE-8279-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8279-MS.
Ahmed, T. H. and McKinney, P. D. 2005. Advanced Reservoir Engineering. Burlington, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Al-Hussainy, R., Ramey, H. J. Jr. and Crawford, P. B. 1966. The Flow of Real Gases Through Porous Media. J Pet Technol 18 (5): 624–636. SPE-1243-A-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1243-A-PA.
Anderson, D. M. and Mattar, L. 2003. Material-Balance-Time During Linear and Radial Flow. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 10–12 June. PETSOC-2003-201. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2003-201.
Anderson, D. M. and Mattar, L. 2007. An Improved Pseudo-Time for Gas Reservoirs With Significant Transient Flow. J Can Pet Technol 46 (7): 49–54. PETSOC-07-07-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/07-07-05.
Arevalo-Villagran, J. A., Wattenbarger, R. A., Samaniego-Verduzco, F., et al. 2001. Production Analysis of Long-Term Linear Flow in Tight Gas Reservoirs: Case Histories. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 30 September–3 October. SPE-71516-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71516-MS.
Arevalo-Villagran, J. A., Gutierrez Acosta, T. and Martinez-Romero, N. 2005. Analysis of Long- Term Behavior in Tight Gas Reservoirs: Case Histories. Presented at SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, 20–23 June. SPE-95117- MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95117-MS.
Arps, J. J. 1945. Analysis of decline curves. Trans. AIME 160 (1): 228–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/945228-G.
Ayala, L. F. and Ye, P. 2013a. Unified Decline Type-Curve Analysis for Natural Gas Wells in Boundary-Dominated Flow. SPE J. 18 (1): 97–113. SPE-161095-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/161095-PA.
Ayala, L. F. and Ye, P. 2013b. Density-Based Decline Performance Analysis of Natural Gas Reservoirs Using a Universal Type Curve. J. Energ. Resour-ASME. 135 (4): 042701-1–042701-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4023867.
Ayala, L. F. and Zhang, M. 2013. Rescaled Exponential and Density-Based Decline Models: Extension to Variable Rate/Pressure-Drawdown Conditions. J Can Pet Technol. 52 (6): 433–440. SPE-168223-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168223-PA.
Carslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C. 1959. Conduction of Heat in Solids. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Dranchuk, P. M. and Abou-Kassem, J. H. 1975. Calculation of Z Factors For Natural Gases Using Equations of State. J Can Pet Technol 14 (3): 34–36. PETSOC-75-03-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75-03-03.
Ehlig-Economides, C. A. and Ramey, H. J. Jr. 1981. Transient Rate Decline Analysis for Wells Produced at Constant Pressure. SPE J. 21 (1): 98–104. SPE-8387-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8387-PA.
Fetkovich, M. J. 1980. Decline Curve Analysis Using Type Curves. J Pet Technol 32 (6): 1065– 1077. SPE-4629-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4629-PA.
Fraim, M. L. and Wattenbarger, R. A. 1987. Gas Reservoir Decline-Curve Analysis Using Type Curves With Real Gas Pseudopressure and Normalized Time. SPE Form Eval. 2 (4): 671–682. SPE-14238-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14238-PA.
Lee, A. L., Gonzalez, M. H. and Eakin, B. E. 1966. The Viscosity of Natural Gases. J Pet Technol 18 (8): 997–1000. SPE-1340-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1340-PA.
Lucas, C. B. 2013. Atomic and Molecular Beams: Production and Collimation. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Miller, F. G. 1962. Theory of Unsteady-State Influx of Water in Linear Reservoirs. J. Inst. Petrol. 48 (467): 365–379.
Raghavan, R. 1993. Well Test Analysis, Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering Series. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Sutton, R. P. 1985. Compressibility Factors for High-Molecular-Weight Reservoir Gases. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 22–25 September. SPE-14265-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14265-MS.
van Everdingen, A. F. and Hurst, W. 1949. The Application of the Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 1 (12): 305–324. SPE-949305-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/949305-G.
van Kruysdijk, C. P. J. W. and Dullaert, G. M. 1989. A Boundary Element Solution of the Transient Pressure Response of Multiple Fractured Horizontal Wells. Proc., ECMOR I – the First European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, Cambridge, England, 1 July. http://dx.doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201411306.
Vardcharragosad, P. 2014. Long-Term Well Performance Prediction in Unconventional Tight Gas and Shale Gas Reservoirs: A Density Approach. PhD dissertation, the Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania (August 2014).
Vardcharragosad, P. and Ayala, L. F. 2015. Production Data Analysis of Gas Reservoirs With Apparent Permeability and Sorbed Phase Effects: A Density-Based Approach. SPE J. 20 (1): 99–111. SPE-166377-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166377-PA.
Wattenbarger, R. A., El-Banbi, A. H., Villegas, M. E., et al. 1998. Production Analysis of Linear Flow Into Fracture Tight Gas Wells. Presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Regional/Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, Colorado, 5–8 April. SPE-39931-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39931-MS.
Ye, P. and Ayala, L. F. 2012. A Density-Diffusivity Approach for the Unsteady State Analysis of Natural Gas Reservoirs. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng. 7 (July 2012): 22–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jngse.2012.03.004.
Zhang, M. and Ayala, L. F. 2015. Density-Based Production-Data Analysis of Gas Wells With Significant Rock-Compressibility Effects. SPE Res Eval & Eng 18 (2): 205–213. SPE-166320-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166320-PA.
Zhang, M. and Ayala, L. F. 2014. Gas-Rate Forecasting in Boundary-Dominated Flow: Constant-Bottomhole-Pressure Decline Analysis by Use of Rescaled Exponential Models. SPE J. 19 (3): 410–417. SPE-168217-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168217-PA.