Enhancing Hydrocarbon Permeability After Hydraulic Fracturing: Laboratory Evaluations of Shut-Ins and Surfactant Additives
- Tianbo Liang (China University of Petroleum, Beijing and University of Texas at Austin) | Rafael A. Longoria (University of Texas at Austin) | Jun Lu (University of Tulsa) | Quoc P. Nguyen (University of Texas at Austin) | David A. DiCarlo (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,011 - 1,023
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Shut-in, Surfactants, Water Blocks, Tight Reservoirs
- 18 in the last 30 days
- 781 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Fracturing-fluid loss into the formation can potentially damage hydrocarbon production in shale or other tight reservoirs. Well shut-ins are commonly used in the field to dissipate the lost water into the matrix near fracture faces. Borrowing from ideas in chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR), surfactants have potential to reduce the effect of fracturing-fluid loss on hydrocarbon permeability in the matrix. Unconventional tight reservoirs can differ significantly from one another, which could make the use of these techniques effective in some cases but not in others. We present an experimental investigation dependent on a coreflood sequence that simulates fluid invasion, flowback, and hydrocarbon production from hydraulically fractured reservoirs. We compare the benefits of shut-ins and reduction in interfacial tension (IFT) by surfactants for hydrocarbon permeability for different initial reservoir conditions (IRCs). From this work, we identify the mechanism responsible for the permeability reduction in the matrix, and we suggest criteria that can be used to optimize fracturing-fluid additives and/or manage flowback operations to enhance hydrocarbon production from unconventional tight reservoirs.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Abrams, A. and Vinegar, H. J. 1985. Impairment Mechanisms in Vicksburg Tight Gas Sands. Presented at the SPE/DOE Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, 19–22 March. SPE-13883-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/13883-MS.
Agee, D. M., Wirajati, A. Y., Schafer, L. et al. 2010. Post-Fracturing Fluid Recovery Enhancement with Microemulsion. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 10–12 February. SPE-128098-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/128098-MS.
Ahmadi, M., Sharma, M. M., Pope, G. et al. 2011. Chemical Treatment To Mitigate Condensate and Water Blocking in Gas Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (1): 67–74. SPE-133591-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/133591-PA.
Al-Anazi, H., Walker, J., Pope, G. et al. 2005. A Successful Methanol Treatment in a Gas/condensate Reservoir: Field Application. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (1): 60–69. SPE-80901-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/80901-PA.
Almulhim, A., Alharthy, N., Tutuncu, A. N. et al. 2014. Impact of Imbibition Mechanism on Flowback Behavior: A Numerical Study. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 10–13 November. SPE-171799-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/171799-MS.
Alramahi, B. and Sundberg, M. I. 2012. Proppant Embedment and Conductivity of Hydraulic Fractures in Shales. Presented at the 46th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, 24–27 June. ARMA-2012-291.
Bazin, B., Peysson, Y., Lamy, F. et al. 2009. In Situ Water Blocking Measurements and Interpretation Related to Fracturing Operations in Tight Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the 8th European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 27–29 May. SPE-121812-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/121812-MS.
Beims, T. 2016. Purple Hayes No. 1H Ushers in Step Changes in Lateral Length, Well Cost. The American Oil and Gas Reporter.
Bennion, D. B., Thomas, F. B., Imer, D. et al. 2000. Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs and Formation Damage–Tricks and Traps. Presented at the SPE/CERI Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 3–5 April. SPE-59753-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/59753-MS.
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C. et al. 2014. Imbibition and Water Blockage in Unconventional Reservoirs: Well-Management Implications During Flowback and Early Production. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (4): 497–506. SPE-167698-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Bostrom, N., Chertov, M., Pagels, M. et al. 2014. The Time-Dependent Permeability Damage Caused by Fracture Fluid. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–28 February. SPE-168140-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168140-MS.
Caenn, R., Darley, H. C. H., and Gray, G. R. 2011. Clay Mineralogy and the Colloid Chemistry of Drilling Fluids. In Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids, sixth edition, Chapter 4, 137–177. Boston, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing.
Cheng, Y. 2012. Impact of Water Dynamics in Fractures on the Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Gas-Shale Reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 51 (2): 143–151. SPE-127863-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/127863-PA.
Curtis, M. E., Ambrose, R. J., and Sondergeld, C. H. 2010. Structural Characterization of Gas Shales on the Micro- and Nano-Scales. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-137693-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/137693-MS.
Das, P., Achalpurkar, M., and Pal, O. 2014. Impact of Formation Softening and Rock Mechanical Properties on Selection of Shale Stimulation Fluid: Laboratory Evaluation. Presented at the SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 25–27 February. SPE-167787-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/167787-MS.
Department of Energy (DOE). 2009. Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer. Report, US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, April 2009.
Dutta, R., Lee, C.-H., Odumabo, S. et al. 2014. Experimental Investigation of Fracturing-Fluid Migration Caused by Spontaneous Imbibition in Fractured Low-Permeability Sands. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (1): 74–81. SPE-154939-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/154939-PA.
Fakcharoenphol, P., Kurtoglu, B., Kazemi, H. et al. 2014. The Effect of Osmotic Pressure on Improve Oil Recovery from Fractured Shale Formations. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 1–3 April. SPE-168998-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/168998-MS.
Goddeeris, C., Cuppo, F., Reynaers, H. et al. 2006. Light Scattering Measurements on Microemulsions: Estimation of Droplet Sizes. Int. J. Pharm. 312 (1–2): 187–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.01.037.
Gokaraju, D., Gu, M., Chen, D. et al. 2015. Shale Fracturing Characterization and Optimization by Using Anisotropic Acoustic Interpretation, 3D Fracture Modeling and Neural Network. Presented at the SPWLA 56th Annual Logging Symposium, Long Beach, California, 18–22 July. SPWLA-2015-F.
Gupta, N., Rai, C. S., and Sondergeld, C. H. 2013. Petrophysical Characterization of the Woodford Shale. Petrophysics 54 (is): 368–382. SPWLA-2013-v54n4-A4.
Holditch, S. A. 1979. Factors Affecting Water Blocking and Gas Flow From Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells. J Pet Technol 31 (12): 1515–1524. SPE-7561-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/7561-PA.
Hou, M. J., Kim, M., and Shah, D. O. 1988. A Light Scattering Study on the Droplet Size and Interdroplet Interaction in Microemulsions of AOT–Oil–Water System. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 123 (2): 398–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(88)90261-5.
Huang, D. D. and Honarpour, M. M. 1998. Capillary End Effects in Coreflood Calculations. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 19 (1–2): 103–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(97)00040-5.
Huh, C. 1979. Interfacial Tensions and Solubilizing Ability of a Microemulsion Phase That Coexists With Oil and Brine. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 71 (2): 408–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(79)90249-2.
Kamath, J. and Laroche, C. 2003. Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Gas Well Deliverability Loss Caused by Water Blocking. SPE J. 8 (1): 71–80. SPE-83659-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/83659-PA.
King, G. E. 2012. Hydraulic Fracturing 101: What Every Representative, Environmentalist, Regulator, Reporter, Investor, University Researcher, Neighbor and Engineer Should Know About Estimating Frac Risk and Improving Frac Performance in Unconventional Gas and Oil Wells. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-152596-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/152596-MS.
Levitt, D., Jackson, A., Heinson, C. et al. 2009. Identification and Evaluation of High-Performance EOR Surfactants. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (2): 243–253. SPE-100089-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/100089-PA.
Liang, T., Achour, S. H., Longoria, R. A. et al. 2016. Identifying and Evaluating Surfactant Additives to Reduce Water Blocks after Hydraulic Fracturing for Low Permeability Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Tulsa, 11–13 April. SPE-179601-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/179601-MS.
Liang, T., Longoria, R. A., Lu, J. et al. 2015a. Enhancing Hydrocarbon Permeability After Hydraulic Fracturing: Laboratory Evaluations of Shut-ins and Surfactant Additives. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175101-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/175101-MS.
Liang, T., Longoria, R. A., Lu, J. et al. 2015b. The Applicability of Surfactants on Enhancing the Productivity in Tight Formations. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July. URTEC-2154284-MS https://doi.org/10.15530/URTEC-2015-2154284.
Loucks, R. G., Reed, R. M., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2012. Spectrum of Pore Types and Networks in Mudrocks and a Descriptive Classification for Matrix-Related Mudrock Pores. AAPG Bull. 96 (6): 1071–1098. https://doi.org/10.1306/08171111061.
Loucks, R. G., Reed, R. M., Ruppel, S. C. et al. 2010. Preliminary Classification of Matrix Pores in Mudrocks. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. Trans. 60: 435–441.
Madsen, F. T. and Müller-Vonmoos, M. 1989. The Swelling Behaviour of Clays. Appl. Clay Sci. 4 (2): 143–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-1317(89)90005-7.
Mahadevan, J. and Sharma, M. M. 2005. Factors Affecting Clean-up of Water-Blocks: A Laboratory Investigation. SPE J. 10 (3): 238–246. SPE-84216-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/84216-PA.
Mahadevan, J., Sharma, M. M., and Yortsos, Y. C. 2007. Capillary Wicking in Gas Wells. SPE J. 12 (4): 429–437. SPE-103229-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/103229-PA.
Milner, M., McLin, R., and Petriello, J. 2010. Imaging Texture and Porosity in Mudstones and Shales: Comparison of Secondary and Ion-Milled Backscatter SEM Methods. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-138975-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/138975-MS.
Morales, D., Gutiérrez, J. M., García-Celma, M. J. et al. 2003. A Study of the Relation between Bicontinuous Microemulsions and Oil/Water Nano-emulsion Formation. Langmuir 19 (18): 7196–7200. https://doi.org/10.1021/la0300737.
Nelson, P. H. 2009. Pore-Throat Sizes in Sandstones, Tight Sandstones, and Shales. AAPG Bull. 93 (3): 329–340. https://doi.org/10.1306/10240808059.
Noe, S. and Crafton, J. 2013. Impact of Delays and Shut-Ins on Well Productivity. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 20–22 August. SPE-165705-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/165705-MS.
Pagels, M., Willberg, D. M., Edelman, E. et al. 2013. Quantifying Fracturing Fluid Damage on Reservoir Rock to Optimize Production. Proc., Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, 12–14 August, 1766–1774. https://doi.org/10.1190/urtec2013-180.
Paktinat, J., Pinkhouse, J. A., Stoner, W. P. et al. 2005. Case Histories: Post-Frac Fluid Recovery Improvements of Appalachian Basin Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, 14–16 September. SPE-97365-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/97365-MS.
Parekh, B. and Sharma, M. M. 2004. Cleanup of Water Blocks in Depleted Low-Permeability Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-89837-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/89837-MS.
Patzek, T. W., Male, F., and Marder, M. 2013. Gas Production in the Barnett Shale Obeys a Simple Scaling Theory. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110 (49): 19731–19736. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1313380110.
Penny, G. and Pursley, J. 2007. Field Studies of Drilling and Completion Fluids to Minimize Damage and Enhance Gas Production in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 30 May–1 June. SPE-107844-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/107844-MS.
Rapoport, L. A. and Leas,W. J. 1953. Properties of LinearWaterfloods. J Pet Technol 5 (5): 139–148. SPE-213-G. https://doi.org/10.2118/213-G.
Rostami, A. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2014. Microemulsion vs. Surfactant Assisted Gas Recovery in Low Permeability Formations with Water Blockage. Presented at the SPE Western North American and Rocky Mountain Joint Meeting, Denver, 17–18 April. SPE-169582-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/169582-MS.
Sun, Y., Bai, B., and Wei, M. 2015. Microfracture and Surfactant Impact on Linear Cocurrent Brine Imbibition in Gas-Saturated Shale. Energ. Fuel. 29 (3): 1438–1446. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef5025559.
Wang, L., Mutch, K. J., Eastoe, J. et al. 2008. Nanoemulsions Prepared by a Two-Step Low-Energy Process. Langmuir 24 (12): 6092–6099. https://doi.org/10.1021/la800624z.
Wasylishen, R. and Fulton, S. 2012. Reuse of Flowback and Produced Water for Hydraulic Fracturing in Tight Oil. Oral presentation given at the 8th Annual Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada Spring Water Forum, Calgary, 28 May.
Winsor, P. A. 1948. Hydrotropy, Solubilisation and Related Emulsification Processes. Trans. Faraday Soc. 44: 376–398. https://doi.org/10.1039/TF9484400376.
Zelenev, A. and Ellena, L. 2009. Microemulsion Technology for Improved Fluid Recovery and Enhanced Core Permeability to Gas. Presented at the 8th European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, The Netherlands, 27–29 May. SPE-122109-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/122109-MS.
Zhang, J., Zhu, D., and Hill, A. D. 2015. Water-Induced Fracture Conductivity Damage in Shale Formations. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 3–5 February. SPE-173346-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/173346-MS.
Zhou, Z., Abass, H., Li, X. et al. 2016. Mechanisms of Imbibition During Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Formations. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 141 (May): 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2016.01.021.